This study applies the “push-pull-mooring” model of migration to explain home purchase intention in a suburban township. “Push” effects include dissatisfaction and high housing costs in one’s current neighbourhood (“the origin”). “Pull” effects were consumers’ perceived value of the suburban township (“the destination”), which encompassed price, functional, emotional, social, symbolic, and Feng Shui aspects. Relocation costs and alternative township’s attractiveness were hypothesized as “mooring” effects that negatively impact purchase intention as well as moderate the push and pull effects. 179 valid responses from prospective home buyers were analysed using partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Pull effects were found to exert a positive influence while mooring and push effects exert a negative influence on purchase intention. Moderation effects of the mooring factors were found to be not significant in this context. This study offers several interesting implications for researchers and marketing practitioners in the real estate industry.
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Appendix: Measurement instrument
Appendix: Measurement instrument
|Constructs||No. of items||Items||Measurement items||Sources|
|Push effects: dissatisfaction with current housing situation|
|Housing attributes||8||HA1||Type of property||
Ibem et al. (2015)|
Clark and Onaka (1983)
|HA2||Built up area|
|HA5||Number of bedrooms|
|HA6||Number of bathrooms|
|HA7||Natural lighting and ventilation|
|HA8||Level of privacy|
|HA9||Overall housing unit attributes|
|Neighbourhood attributes||5||NA1||Crime situation||
Mohit et al. (2010)|
Duque-Calvache et al. (2017)
|NA6||Overall neighbourhood environment|
|Price perception||6||PP1||The price of houses in my current neighbourhood is reasonable||
Chang et al. (2017)|
Jung et al. (2017b)
Voss et al. (1998)
|PP2||The price of houses in my current neighbourhood is expensive*|
|PP3||I would be pleased to pay the price for houses in my current neighbourhood|
|PP4||I am satisfied with the price of houses in my current neighbourhood|
|PP5||The houses in my current neighbourhood are fairly priced|
|PP6||The houses in my current neighbourhood are overpriced*|
|Pull effects: attractiveness of City of Elmina|
|Price value||7||PV1||The homes in the City of Elmina are reasonably priced||
Sweeney and Soutar (2001)|
Herrmann et al. (2007)
Voss et al. (1998)
|PV2||The homes in the City of Elmina offer value for money|
|PV3||The homes in the City of Elmina are good products for the price|
|PV4||The price of homes in the City of Elmina is appropriate relative to its value|
|PV5||The price of homes in the City of Elmina meets my expectations|
|PV6||The homes in the City of Elmina are expensive*|
|PV7||I would be pleased to pay the price for homes in the City of Elmina|
|Functional value||5||FV1||The homes in the City of Elmina have consistent quality||Sweeney and Soutar (2001)|
|FV2||The homes in the City of Elmina are well designed|
|FV3||The homes in the City of Elmina have an acceptable standard of quality|
|FV4||The homes in the City of Elmina have good workmanship|
|FV5||The homes in the City of Elmina would last a long time|
|Emotional value||5||EV1||The neighbourhood environment in the City of Elmina is one that I would enjoy||Sweeney and Soutar (2001)|
|EV2||The neighbourhood environment in the City of Elmina would make me want to stay here|
|EV3||The neighbourhood environment in the City of Elmina is one that I would feel relaxed to stay in|
|EV4||The neighbourhood environment in the City of Elmina makes me feel good|
|EV5||The neighbourhood environment in the City of Elmina would give me pleasure|
|Pull effects: attractiveness of City of Elmina|
|Social value||4||SV1||Buying a home in the City of Elmina would help me to feel acceptable||Sweeney and Soutar (2001)|
|SV2||Buying a home in the City of Elmina would improve the way I am perceived socially|
|SV3||Buying a home in the City of Elmina would make a good impression on other people|
|SV4||Buying a home in the City of Elmina would give me social approval|
|Symbolic value||5||SCV1||Staying in the City of Elmina is consistent with how I see myself||Sirgy et al. (1997)|
|SCV2||The City of Elmina reflects who I am|
|SCV3||People similar to me are staying in the City of Elmina|
|SCV4||The kind of person who typically stays in the City of Elmina are very much like me|
|SCV5||The City of Elmina mirrors my lifestyle|
|Feng Shui value||7||FSV1||Properties in the City of Elmina are backed by taller buildings or a mountain behind||Wu et al. (2012)|
|FSV2||Properties in the City of Elmina have an open space in front|
|FSV3||Properties in the City of Elmina have a good view in front|
|FSV4||Properties in the City of Elmina have good sitting/facing directions|
|FSV5||Properties in the City of Elmina have appropriate internal layout|
|FSV6||Properties in the City of Elmina have been designed to avoid harmful objects e.g. does not directly face junctions, sharp edges of other buildings, or electric wires/viaduct|
|FSV7||Properties in the City of Elmina are associated with lucky numbers, e.g., address numbers and list price|
|FSV8||Overall, properties in the City of Elmina have good Feng Shui|
|Relocation costs||5||RC1||I would need to spend a lot of time and money to relocate from my current home/neighbourhood to the City of Elmina||
Bansal et al. (2004)|
Sharma and Patterson (2000)
|RC2||Overall, I would spend and lose a lot if I move from my current home/neighbourhood to the City of Elmina|
|RC3||Generally speaking, the costs in time, money and effort to move from my current home/neighbourhood to the City of Elmina would be high|
|RC4||I would feel frustrated to move out of my current home/neighbourhood to the City of Elmina|
|RC5||Considering everything, the costs to move out of my current home/neighbourhood and shift into the City of Elmina would be high|
|Alternative attractiveness||5||AA1||Purchasing a home in the above-mentioned development will be less costly than in the City of Elmina||
Bansal et al. (2004)|
Sharma and Patterson (2000)
|AA2||Overall, purchasing a home in the above-mentioned development would benefit me more than in the City of Elmina|
|AA3||I would be much more satisfied with purchasing a home in the above-mentioned development compared to the City of Elmina|
|AA4||In general, I would be much more satisfied with the above-mentioned development than with the City of Elmina|
|AA5||Overall, the above-mentioned development would be a better purchase than the City of Elmina|
|Dependent variable||No. of items||items||Measurement items||Sources|
The likelihood of me purchasing a home in the City of Elmina is…|
Very Unlikely…..Very Likely
|Oliver and Swan (1989)|
The probability of me purchasing a home in the City of Elmina is…|
Very Improbable…..Very Probable
Chances I would purchase a home in the City of Elmina are…|
Not at all Certain…..Completely Certain
The possibility of me purchasing a home in the City of Elmina is…|
Very Impossible…..Very Possible
|Social desirability||7||SD1||I like to gossip at times||Fischer and Fick (1993)|
|SD2||There have been occasions when I took advantage of someone|
|SD3||I sometimes try to get even rather than forgive and forget|
|SD4||I’m always willing to admit it when I make a mistake|
|SD5||At times I have really insisted on having things my own way|
|SD6||I have never been irked when people expressed ideas very different from my own|
|SD7||I have never deliberately said something that hurt someone’s feelings|
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Cite this article
Ghazali, E.M., Ngiam, E.YL. & Mutum, D.S. Elucidating the drivers of residential mobility and housing choice behaviour in a suburban township via push–pull–mooring framework. J Hous and the Built Environ 35, 633–659 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10901-019-09705-8
- Home purchase intention
- Residential mobility
- Housing choice behaviour
- Attractiveness of alternatives
- Switching barriers