Advertisement

Journal of Community Health

, Volume 44, Issue 4, pp 749–755 | Cite as

Risk-Taking Behaviors and Sexual Violence Among Secondary School Students in Tanzania

  • Teigan DwyerEmail author
  • Shalini Kulasingam
  • Katherine Mwimbe Kamm
  • Dickson Chinunje
  • Rogers Malamsha
  • Said Mawji
  • Rainer Kapinga
  • Charles Majinge
Original Paper
  • 53 Downloads

Abstract

There is limited district level data on drug or alcohol use as well as sex and reproductive history among secondary school students in Tanzania to inform prevention efforts. To address this, we conducted a survey of 2523 secondary school students in 2 districts (Bahi and Mpwapwa) and the Dodoma municipal area in Tanzania. Overall, fifty three percent were female and 67% were between the ages of 15 and 17 years old. Students in the Dodoma Municipality district self-reported the highest prevalence of forced sex, sex for gifts or money, and drug use. Students in the Bahi district reported the highest prevalence of alcohol use. Males reported a higher prevalence of consensual sex, contraception use, and alcohol and drug use compared to females, the latter of whom reported a higher prevalence of forced sex. Most students’ indicated that their primary source of sex and reproductive health information was their teachers. These results suggest the need for tailored interventions among secondary school students in the Dodoma region in Tanzania.

Keywords

Adolescent health Risk-taking behaviors Sexual health Students Tanzania 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study received financial support from a University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health Hawley Grant; University of Minnesota, School of Public Health, Division of Epidemiology and Community Health Martinson-Luepker Travel Award; and University of Minnesota, Interdisciplinary Perspectives on International Development Travel Grant.

Authors Contributions

TD, MK, SK and CM conceived the study. TD, DC, RM performed the data collection. TD drafted the manuscript. All authors read and/or provided revisions and gave approval for final version of the manuscript to be published.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10900_2019_673_MOESM1_ESM.docx (26 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 26 kb)

References

  1. 1.
    Michielsen, K., Chersich, M. F., Luchters, S., De Koker, P., Van Rossem, R., & Temmerman, M. (2010). Effectiveness of HIV prevention for youth in sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized trials. Aids, 24(8), 1193–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. (2006). Guide to the implementation of the world programme of action for youth: Recommendations and ideas for concrete action for policies and programmes that address the everyday realities and challenges of youth. New York: United Nations Publications.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCleary-Sills, J., Douglas, Z., Rwehumbiza, A., Hamisi, A., & Mabala, R. (2013). Gendered norms, sexual exploitation and adolescent pregnancy in rural Tanzania. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    WHO|Sexually transmitted infections (STIs). (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs110/en/.
  5. 5.
    WHO|The Importance of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights to Prevent HIV in Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Eastern and Southern Africa. (n.d.). Retrieved July 7, 2017, from WHO. http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/linkages/hiv-prevention-adolescent-girls-young-women/en/.
  6. 6.
    Tolley, E. E., Kaaya, S., Kaale, A., et al. (2014). Comparing patterns of sexual risk among adolescent and young women in a mixed-method study in Tanzania: Implications for adolescent participation in HIV prevention trials. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 17(3 Suppl 2), 19149.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hokororo, A., Kihunrwa, A., Hoekstra, P., et al. (2015). High prevalence of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant adolescent girls in Tanzania: A multi-community cross-sectional study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 91(7), 473–478.  https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2014-051952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    WHO|Risk and Protective Factors Affecting Adolescent Reproductive Health in Developing Countries. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2017, from WHO. http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/9241592273/en/.
  9. 9.
    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). (2006). 2006 report on the global AIDS epidemic: a UNAIDS 10th anniversary special edition. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    United Republic of Tanzania|UNAIDS. (n.d.). Retrieved March 1, 2017, from http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/unitedrepublicoftanzania.
  11. 11.
    Sommer, M., Likindikoki, S., & Kaaya, S. (2015). “Bend a fish when the fish is not yet dry”: Adolescent boys’ perceptions of sexual risk in Tanzania. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44(3), 583–595.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-014-0406-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schaefer, R., Gregson, S., Eaton, J. W., et al. (2017). Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: Evidence from Zimbabwe. AIDS, 31(10), 1461–1470.  https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000001506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Masatu, M. C., Kazaura, M. R., Ndeki, S., & Mwampambe, R. (2009). Predictors of risky sexual behavior among adolescents in Tanzania. AIDS and Behavior, 13(1), 94–99.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-007-9292-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aarø, L. E., Flisher, A. J., Kaaya, S., et al. (2006). Promoting sexual and reproductive health in early adolescence in South Africa and Tanzania: Development of a theory- and evidence-based intervention programme. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 34(2), 150–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Doyle, A. M., Ross, D. A., Maganja, K., et al. (2010). Long-term biological and behavioural impact of an adolescent sexual health intervention in Tanzania: Follow-up survey of the community-based MEMA Kwa Vijana Trial. PLoS Medicine, 7(6), e1000287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muchimba, M., Haberstick, B. C., Corley, R. P., & McQueen, M. B. (2013). Frequency of alcohol use in adolescence as a marker for subsequent sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 53(2), 215–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.02.005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kiene, S. M., & Subramanian, S. V. (2013). Event-level association between alcohol use and unprotected sex during last sex: Evidence from population-based surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Public Health, 13, 583.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Francis, J. M., Weiss, H. A., Mshana, G., Baisley, K., Grosskurth, H., & Kapiga, S. H. (2015). The epidemiology of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among young people in Northern Tanzania. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0140041.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0140041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Francis, J. M., Grosskurth, H., Changalucha, J., Kapiga, S. H., & Weiss, H. A. (2014). Systematic review and meta-analysis: prevalence of alcohol use among young people in eastern Africa. Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH, 19(4), 476–488.  https://doi.org/10.1111/tmi.12267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    CDC Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS). (2019). Retrieved March 26, 2019, from https://www.cdc.gov/gshs/index.htm.
  21. 21.
    Masibo, R., Mndeme, E., & Nsimba, S. (2013). An assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of psychoactive substance use among secondary school students in Dodoma Municipality, Tanzania. American Journal of Research Communication, 1(4), 200–240.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    National Bureau of Statistics: Ministry of Finance, & Office of Chief Government Statistician: President’s Office, Finance, Economy and Development Planning. (2013). Population Distribution by Age and Sex. The United Republic of Tanzania.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ministry of Health, Community Development, Gender, Elderly and Children: Tanzania Mainlaind, Ministry of Health: Zanzibar, National Bureau of Statistics: Tanzania, Office of Chief Government Statistician: Zanzibar, & ICF. (2016). Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and Malaria Indicator Survey 20152016. Retrieved from http://dhsprogram.com/publications/publication-FR321-DHS-Final-Reports.cfm.
  24. 24.
    Tanzania to Move Capital to Dodoma Starting September. (n.d.). Retrieved June 29, 2017, from The East African. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/news/Tanzania-says-government-capital-will-move-to-Dodoma/2558-3316520-6xteu3/index.html.
  25. 25.
    Zou, G. (2004). A modified poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. American Journal of Epidemiology, 159(7), 702–706.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Basile, K. C., & Saltzman, L. E. (2009). Sexual violence surveillance: Uniform definitions and recommended data elements. Atlanta: Centers for Disase Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Scorgie, F., Chersich, M. F., Ntaganira, I., Gerbase, A., Lule, F., & Lo, Y.-R. (2012). Socio-demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors of female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review. AIDS and Behavior, 16(4), 920–933.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-011-9985-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ratcliffe, R. (2017). “After getting pregnant, you are done”: no more school for Tanzania’s mums-to-be. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/jun/30/tanzania-president-ban-pregnant-girls-from-school-john-magufuli.
  29. 29.
    Masatu, M. C., Kvåle, G., & Klepp, K. (2003). Frequency and perceived credibility of reported sources of reproductive health information among primary school adolescents in Arusha, Tanzania. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 31(3), 216–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public HealthUniversity of Minnesota Twin-CitiesMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Community Health DepartmentDodoma Christian Medical CenterDodomaTanzania
  3. 3.Mpwapwa District CouncilDodomaTanzania
  4. 4.Bahi District CouncilDodomaTanzania
  5. 5.University of Minnesota Twin-CitiesMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations