Advertisement

Journal of Community Health

, Volume 40, Issue 5, pp 1015–1023 | Cite as

Respiratory Health Risks for Children Living Near a Major Railyard

  • Rhonda Spencer-HwangEmail author
  • Sam Soret
  • Synnove Knutsen
  • David Shavlik
  • Mark Ghamsary
  • W. Lawrence Beeson
  • Wonha Kim
  • Susanne Montgomery
Original Paper

Abstract

Inland southern California is a region of public health concern, especially for children, given the area’s perennially poor air quality and increasing sources of local pollution. One elementary school specifically is located only a few hundred yards from the San Bernardino Railyard, one of the busiest goods movement facilities in California, potentially increasing respiratory problems. Through ENRRICH (Environmental Railyard Research Impacting Community Health) Project, we assessed association of proximity to a major freight railyard on adverse respiratory health in schoolchildren. Respiratory screening was provided for children at two elementary schools: one near the railyard and a socio-demographically matched comparison school 7 miles away. Screening included testing for airway inflammation (Fe NO), lung function (peak expiratory flow, PEF) and parent reported respiratory symptoms. Parental questionnaires collected additional information. Log-binomial and linear regression assessed associations. Children attending school near the railyard were more likely to exhibit airway obstruction with higher prevalence of abnormal PEF (<80 %): prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59 (95 % CI 1.19–2.12). The association with inflammation was less clear. Children at the exposure school, who had lived 6 months or longer at their current address (vs. all children at that school) were more likely to have values suggesting inflammation (Fe NO > 20 ppb) (PR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.02–2.02) and present with a trend for increased adverse respiratory symptoms. Children attending school near the railyard were significantly more likely to display respiratory health challenges. Ideally these low-income, low resource communities should be supported to implement sustainable intervention strategies to promote an environment where children can live healthier and thrive.

Keywords

Air pollution Children Respiratory Railyard Health professionals 

Abbreviations

CARB

California Air Resource Board

FeNO

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide

CS

Control school

PEF

Peak expiratory flow

DPM

Diesel particulate matter

PR

Prevalence ratio

ES

Exposure school

SBR

San Bernardino Railyard

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the SCAQMD/BP West Coast Products Oversight Committee, LLC Grant # 659005 and by NIH # P20MD006988. We thank the Arrowhead Regional Center Breathmobile® for collaborating with Project ENRRICH and the Aerocrine Corporation for donating additional NIOX tests. We are also grateful to Drs. J. Ospital and T. Chico, from the SCAQMD, for providing the MATES emissions data.

Conflict of interest

The authors have no financial conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Akinbami, L., Centers for Disease, & Prevention National Center for Health. (2006). The state of childhood asthma, United States, 1980–2005. Advanced Data, 381, 1–24.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, H., Favarato, G., & Atkinson, R. (2013). Long-term exposure to air pollution and the incidence of asthma: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Air Quality, Atmosphere and Health, 1, 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barbosa, S. M., Farhat, S. C., Martins, L. C., Pereira, L. A., Saldiva, P. H., Zanobetti, A., et al. (2015). Air pollution and children’s health: Sickle cell disease. Cad Saude Publica, 31(2), 265–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bastain, T. M., Islam, T., Berhane, K. T., McConnell, R. S., Rappaport, E. B., Salam, M. T., et al. (2011). Exhaled nitric oxide, susceptibility and new-onset asthma in the Children’s Health Study. European Respiratory Journal, 37(3), 523–531.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bateson, T. F., & Schwartz, J. (2008). Children’s response to air pollutants. J Toxicol Environ Health A, 71(3), 238–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bilenko, N., van Rossem, L., Brunekreef, B., Beelen, R., Eeftens, M., Hoek, G., et al. (2015). Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children’s blood pressure: Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(1), 4–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boland, S., Baeza-Squiban, A., Fournier, T., Houcine, O., Gendron, M. C., Chevrier, M., et al. (1999). Diesel exhaust particles are taken up by human airway epithelial cells in vitro and alter cytokine production. American Journal of Physiology, 276(4 Pt 1), L604–L613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buchvald, F., & Bisgaard, H. (2001). FeNO measured at fixed exhalation flow rate during controlled tidal breathing in children from the age of 2 yr. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 163(3 Pt 1), 699–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cahill, T., Cahill, T., Barnes, D., Spada, N., & Miller, R. (2011). Inorganic and organic aerosols downwind of California’s Roseville Railyard. Aerosol Science and Technology, 45(9), 1049–1059.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    CARB. (2005). Air quality and land use handbook: A community health perspective. Retrieved 31 October, 2014, from http://www.arb.ca.gov/ch/handbook.pdf
  11. 11.
    Carraro, S., Gottardi, G., Bonetto, G., & Baraldi, E. (2007). Exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma and sinusitis. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 18(Suppl 18), 28–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Castaneda, H., Yang, E., Mahmood, A., Cutts, S., Mitchell, A., Dolney, N., et al. (2008). Health risk assessment for the BNSF San Bernardino Railyard. Sacramento, CA: California Air Resources Board. http://www.arb.ca.gov/railyard/hra/bnsf_sb_final.pdf. Accessed 25 August, 2013.
  13. 13.
    Codispoti, C. D., LeMasters, G. K., Levin, L., Reponen, T., Ryan, P. H., Biagini Myers, J. M., et al. (2015). Traffic pollution is associated with early childhood aeroallergen sensitization. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology, 114(2), 126–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dales, R., Wheeler, A., Mahmud, M., Frescura, A. M., Smith-Doiron, M., Nethery, E., et al. (2008). The influence of living near roadways on spirometry and exhaled nitric oxide in elementary schoolchildren. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(10), 1423–1427. doi: 10.1289/ehp.10943.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Danielsen, P. H., Loft, S., & Moller, P. (2008). DNA damage and cytotoxicity in type II lung epithelial (A549) cell cultures after exposure to diesel exhaust and urban street particles. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 5, 6.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Delfino, R. J., Staimer, N., Gillen, D., Tjoa, T., Sioutas, C., Fung, K., et al. (2006). Personal and ambient air pollution is associated with increased exhaled nitric oxide in children with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(11), 1736–1743.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dweik, R. A., Sorkness, R. L., Wenzel, S., Hammel, J., Curran-Everett, D., Comhair, S. A., et al. (2010). Use of exhaled nitric oxide measurement to identify a reactive, at-risk phenotype among patients with asthma. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181(10), 1033–1041.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gaffron, P., & Niemeier, D. (2015). School locations and traffic emissions—environmental (in)justice findings using a new screening method. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(2), 2009–2025.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gauderman, W. J., Urman, R., Avol, E., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Rappaport, E., et al. (2015). Association of improved air quality with lung development in children. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(10), 905–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gehring, U., Wijga, A. H., Brauer, M., Fischer, P., de Jongste, J. C., Kerkhof, M., et al. (2010). Traffic-related air pollution and the development of asthma and allergies during the first 8 years of life. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 181(6), 596–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hew, K. M., Walker, A. I., Kohli, A., Garcia, M., Syed, A., McDonald-Hyman, C., et al. (2015). Childhood exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is linked to epigenetic modifications and impaired systemic immunity in T cells. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 45(1), 238–248.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hricko, A. (2008). Global trade comes home: Community impacts of goods movement. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(2), A78–A81.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hricko, A. M. (2006). Ships, trucks, and trains: Effects of goods movement on environmental health. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(4), A204–A205.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Islam, T., Urman, R., Gauderman, W. J., Milam, J., Lurmann, F., Shankardass, K., et al. (2011). Parental stress increases the detrimental effect of traffic exposure on children’s lung function. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 184(7), 822–827.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Jacobson, L., Hacon, S., Castro, H., Ignotti, E., Artaxo, P., & PoncedeLeon, A. (2012). Association between fine particulate matter and the peak expiratory flow of schoolchildren in the Brazilian subequatorial Amazon: A panel study. Environmental Research, 117, 27–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jerrett, M., McConnell, R., Wolch, J., Chang, R., Lam, C., Dunton, G., et al. (2014). Traffic-related air pollution and obesity formation in children: A longitudinal, multilevel analysis. Environ Health, 13, 49.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee, Y. L., Wang, W. H., Lu, C. W., Lin, Y. H., & Hwang, B. F. (2011). Effects of ambient air pollution on pulmonary function among schoolchildren. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 214(5), 369–375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Li, N., Sioutas, C., Cho, A., Schmitz, D., Misra, C., Sempf, J., et al. (2003). Ultrafine particulate pollutants induce oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(4), 455–460.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McConnell, R., Islam, T., Shankardass, K., Jerrett, M., Lurmann, F., Gilliland, F., et al. (2010). Childhood incident asthma and traffic-related air pollution at home and school. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118(7), 1021–1026.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Newman, N., Ryan, P., Huang, B., Beck, A., Sauers, H., & Kahn, R. (2014). Traffic related air pollution and asthma hospital readmission in children: A longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Pediatrics, 164(6), 1396–1402.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ospital, J., Cassmassi, J., & Chico, T. (2008). Multiple air toxics exposure study in the South Coast Air Basin: MATES-III. Final report. Diamond Bar, CA. http://www.aqmd.gov/home/library/air-quality-data-studies/health-studies/mates-iii/mates-iii-final-report. Accessed 23 October, 2014.
  32. 32.
    Pandya, R. J., Solomon, G., Kinner, A., & Balmes, J. R. (2002). Diesel exhaust and asthma: Hypotheses and molecular mechanisms of action. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(Suppl 1), 103–112.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Perez, L., Kunzli, N., Avol, E., Hricko, A. M., Lurmann, F., Nicholas, E., et al. (2009). Global goods movement and the local burden of childhood asthma in southern California. American Journal of Public Health, 99(Suppl 3), S622–S628.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Riedl, M., & Diaz-Sanchez, D. (2005). Biology of diesel exhaust effects on respiratory function. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115(2), 221–228. (quiz 229).CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Rioux, C. L., Gute, D. M., Brugge, D., Peterson, S., & Parmenter, B. (2010). Characterizing urban traffic exposures using transportation planning tools: An illustrated methodology for health researchers. Journal of Urban Health, 87(2), 167–188.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ritz, B., Yu, F., Chapa, G., & Fruin, S. (2000). Effect of air pollution on preterm birth among children born in southern California between 1989 and 1993. Epidemiology, 11(5), 502–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sharma, D. C. (2006). Ports in a storm. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(4), A222–A231.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Spencer-Hwang, R., Montgomery, S., Dougherty, M., Valladares, J., Rangel, S., Gleason, P., et al. (2014). Experiences of a rail yard community: Life is hard. Journal of Environmental Health, 77(2), 8–17.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Spira-Cohen, A., Chen, L. C., Kendall, M., Lall, R., & Thurston, G. D. (2011). Personal exposures to traffic-related air pollution and acute respiratory health among Bronx schoolchildren with asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(4), 559–565.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Steerenberg, P. A., Nierkens, S., Fischer, P. H., van Loveren, H., Opperhuizen, A., Vos, J. G., et al. (2001). Traffic-related air pollution affects peak expiratory flow, exhaled nitric oxide, and inflammatory nasal markers. Archives of Environmental Health, 56(2), 167–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    van Roosbroeck, S., Wichmann, J., Janssen, N. A., Hoek, G., van Wijnen, J. H., Lebret, E., et al. (2006). Long-term personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution among school children, a validation study. Science of the Total Environment, 368(2–3), 565–573.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wilhelm, M., Meng, Y. Y., Rull, R. P., English, P., Balmes, J., & Ritz, B. (2008). Environmental public health tracking of childhood asthma using California health interview survey, traffic, and outdoor air pollution data. Environmental Health Perspectives, 116(9), 1254–1260.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rhonda Spencer-Hwang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sam Soret
    • 1
  • Synnove Knutsen
    • 1
  • David Shavlik
    • 1
  • Mark Ghamsary
    • 1
  • W. Lawrence Beeson
    • 1
  • Wonha Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Susanne Montgomery
    • 3
  1. 1.School of Public HealthLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  2. 2.School of MedicineLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA
  3. 3.Behavioral Health Institute, School of Behavioral HealthLoma Linda UniversityLoma LindaUSA

Personalised recommendations