Skip to main content

Epidemiological Comparative Study of Pediculosis Capitis Among Primary School Children in Fayoum and Minofiya Governorates, Egypt


Pediculosis is a frequent public health problem. The pattern and prevalence of Pediculosis is dependent on many socio-demographic and economic factors. It is common in schoolchildren especially primary level; it may affect their learning performance. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head louse among primary students, in Fayoum and Bagor districts, and explore the predisposing factors of head louse infestation in both public and private schools. The study was a cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in two governorates: Fayoum and Minofiya governorates which represent upper and lower Egypt respectively during the academic year of 2012–2013. The students were selected from different grades with a total of 10,935 students. The prevalence of head lice in the study group was 16.7 %. The incidence was higher in public schools 20.7 % than private schools 9.04 % and in girls 25.8 % more than boys, especially covered hair girls 6.2 %. There was a socio-demographic influence of louse infestation on residence, presence of water supply, number of house rooms, and number of family member. It is concluded that head lice are a common childhood problem related to poor hygiene and socioeconomic status. There is a need for collaboration effort between family, school, community, and media, to create an environment that establishes healthy behaviors and health promotion.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Leung, A., Fong, J., & Pinto-Rojas, A. (2005). Pediculosis capitis. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 19(6), 369–373.

  2. Shayeghi, M., Paksa, A., Salim, A. Y., Sanei, D. A., Ahmadi, A., Eshaghi, M., et al. (2010). Epidemiology of head lice infestation in primary school pupils, in Khajeh City, east Azerbaijan province. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, 4(1), 42–46.

    PubMed Central  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Rupes, V., Vlckova, J., & Mazanek, L. (2006). Pediatric head lice: Taxonomy, incidence, resistance, delousing. Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie, 55, 112–119.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Guenther, L., & Cunna, B. (2010). Pediculus humanus capitis: an update. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat, 17, 147.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Meinking, T. L. (2004). Clinical update on resistance and treatment of pediculosis capitis. American Journal of Managed Care, 10(9), S264–S268.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Nutanson, I., Steen, C. J., Schwartz, R. A., & Janniger, C. K. (2008). Pediculus humanus capitis: an update. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Panonica Adriat, 17(4), 147–159.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Ibarra, J. (2003). Lice Anoplura. In R. Lane & R. Crosskey (Eds.), Medical insects and arachnids (pp. 517–528). London: Chapman and Hall.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Shakkoury, W., & Abu-Wandy, E. (1999). Prevalence of skin disorders among male schoolchildren in Amman, Jordan. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 5(5), 955–959.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Pearlman, D. L. (2004). A simple treatment for head lice: Dry-on, suffocation-based pediculicide. Pediatrics, 114(3), e275–e279.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Chosidow, O., Giraudeau, B., & Cottrell, J. (2010). Oral ivermectin versus malathion lotion for difficult-to-treat head lice. New England Journal of Medicine, 362(10), 896–905.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Dolianitis, C., & Sinclair, R. (2002). Optimal treatment of head lice: is a no-nit policy justified? Clinics in Dermatology, 20, 94–96.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Kamyabi, M., & Nakhaei, M. (2005). A survey on the prevalence of pediculosis capitis in afghan immigrants in Kerman, 1998. Daneshvar No.35 Oct–Nov, 2005. (10), 41-46.

  13. Amr, Z., & Nusier, M. (2000). Pediculosis capitis in northern Jordan. International Journal of Dermatology, 39(12), 919–921.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Burkhart, C. G., & Burkhart, C. N. (2006). Safety and efficacy of pediculicides for head lice. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 5(1), 169–179.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Flinders, D. C., & De Schweinitz, P. (2004). Pediculosis and scabies. American Family Physician, 69(341–8), 349–350.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Nada, E., El-Nadi, N., & Abu-El Dahab, S. (2006). Epidemiological studies on Pediculosis capitis in Sohag Governorate. Egyptian Dermatology Online Journal, 2(1), 9.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Yamamah, G. A., Emam, H. M., Abdelhamid, M. F., Elsaie, M. L., Shehata, H., Faried, T., et al. (2012). Epidemiologic study of dermatologic disorders among children in South Sinai, Egypt. International Journal of Dermatology, 51(10), 1180–1185.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. El-Shafie, O., & El-Shazly, H. (2000). Head lice among primary school children in Minofiya and the effect of different protocols of treatment. Egypt Journal of Medical Sciences, 21(2), 331–340.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Gulgun, M., Balci, E., Karaoglu, A., Babacan, O., & Turker, T. (2013). Pediculosis Capitis: Prevalence and its associated factors in primary school children living in rural and urban areas in Kayseri, Turkey. Central European Journal of Public Health, 21(2), 104–108.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Inanir, I., Sahin, M. T., Gunduz, K., Turel, A., & Ozurkcan, S. (2002). Prevalence of skin conditions in primary-school children in Turkey: Differences based on socioeconomic factors. Pediatric dermatology, 19(4), 307–311.

  21. El- Bashir, Z. M., & Fouad, M. A. (2002). A preliminary pilot survey on head lice, Pediculosis in Sharkia governorate, and treatment of head lice with natural plant extracts. Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology, 32(3), 725–736.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Lesshafft, H., Baier, A., Guerra, H., Terashima, A., & Feldmeier, H. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors associated with Pediculosis capitis in an impoverished urban community in lima, Peru. Journal of Global Infectious Disease, 5(4), 138–143.

  23. Ahmed, A. M., Afifi, A. A., Malik, E. M., & Adam, I. (2010). Intestinal protozoa and intestinal helminthic infections among schoolchildren in Central Sudan. Asian Pac J Trop Med., 3(4), 292–293.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Watcharawit, R., & Mayura, S. (2012). Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis among school children in the Eastern area of Bangkok, Thailand. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2(11), 901–904.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Naglaa A. El Sherbiny.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abd El Raheem, T.A., El Sherbiny, N.A., Elgameel, A. et al. Epidemiological Comparative Study of Pediculosis Capitis Among Primary School Children in Fayoum and Minofiya Governorates, Egypt. J Community Health 40, 222–226 (2015).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • School students
  • Pediculosis
  • Prevalence
  • Epidemiology