Prevalence and Profile of Ophthalmic Disorders in Oculocutaneous Albinism: A Field Report from South-Eastern Nigeria
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- Udeh, N.N., Eze, B.I., Onwubiko, S.N. et al. J Community Health (2014) 39: 1193. doi:10.1007/s10900-014-9878-y
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To assess the burden and spectrum of refractive and non-refractive ophthalmic disorders in south-eastern Nigerians with oculocutaneous albinism. In a population-based survey in Enugu state, between August, 2011 and January, 2012, albinos were identified using the database of the Enugu state’s Albino Foundation, and mass media-based mobilisation. The participants were enrolled at the Eye Clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital using a defined protocol. Relevant socio-demographic and clinical data were obtained from each participant. Descriptive and comparative statistics were performed. Statistical significance was indicated by p < 0.05. The participants (n = 153; males, 70) were aged 23.5 + 10.4 SD years (range 6–60 years). Both refractive and non-refractive disorders were present in all participants. Non-refractive disorders comprised nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia, hypopigmented fundi and prominent choroidal vessels in 100.0 % participants; and strabismus in 16.3 % participants. Refractive disorders comprised astigmatism −73.2 % eyes, myopia −23.9 % and hypermetropia 2.9 %. Spherical refractive errors ranged from −14.00 DS to +8.00 DS while astigmatic errors ranged from −6.00 DC to +6 DC. Mixed refractive and non-refractive disorder i.e. presenting visual impairment was present in 100.0 % participants. Overall, refractive error was associated with non-possession of tertiary education (OR 0.61; 95 % CI 0.38–0.96; p = 0.0374). There is high prevalence of refractive, non-refractive and mixed ophthalmic disorders among albinos in south-eastern Nigeria. This underscores the need for tailored provision of resources to address their eye care needs, and creation of needs awareness amongst them.