Co-development of Problem Gambling and Depression Symptoms in Emerging Adults: A Parallel-Process Latent Class Growth Model

  • Jason D. Edgerton
  • Matthew T. Keough
  • Lance W. Roberts
Original Paper


This study examines whether there are multiple joint trajectories of depression and problem gambling co-development in a sample of emerging adults. Data were from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (n = 679), which was collected in 4 waves across 5 years (age 18–20 at baseline). Parallel process latent class growth modeling was used to identified 5 joint trajectory classes: low decreasing gambling, low increasing depression (81%); low stable gambling, moderate decreasing depression (9%); low stable gambling, high decreasing depression (5%); low stable gambling, moderate stable depression (3%); moderate stable problem gambling, no depression (2%). There was no evidence of reciprocal growth in problem gambling and depression in any of the joint classes. Multinomial logistic regression analyses of baseline risk and protective factors found that only neuroticism, escape-avoidance coping, and perceived level of family social support were significant predictors of joint trajectory class membership. Consistent with the pathways model framework, we observed that individuals in the problem gambling only class were more likely using gambling as a stable way to cope with negative emotions. Similarly, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of family support were associated with increased odds of being in a class with moderate to high levels of depressive symptoms (but low gambling problems). The results suggest that interventions for problem gambling and/or depression need to focus on promoting more adaptive coping skills among more “at-risk” young adults, and such interventions should be tailored in relation to specific subtypes of comorbid mental illness.


Emerging adulthood Problem gambling Depression Dual trajectory classes Risk/protective factors 



This research was funded by the Manitoba Gambling Research Program of Manitoba Liquor and Lotteries (Grant # MGRP-FR-12-14-11); however, the findings and conclusions of this paper are those solely of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Manitoba Liquor and Lotteries.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


  1. Afifi, T. O., Enns, M. W., Cox, B. J., & Martens, P. J. (2005). Investigating health correlates of adolescent depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96(6), 427–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (2005). The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. Journal of Drug Issues, 35, 235–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bagby, R. M., Vachon, D. D., Bulmash, E. L., Toneatto, T., Quilty, L. C., & Costa, P. T. (2007). Pathological gambling and the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 873–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barth, J., Hofmann, K., & Schori, D. (2014). Depression in early adulthood: prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men. Swiss Medical Weekly, 144, w13945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bentler, P. M., & Chou, C. P. (1987). Practical issues in structural modeling. Sociological Methods and Research, 16, 78–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergevin, T., Gupta, R., Derevensky, J., & Kaufman, F. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Understanding the role of stress and coping. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 195–208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Brendgen, M., Wanner, B., Morin, A. J. S., & Vitaro, F. (2005). Relations with parents and with peers, temperament, and trajectories of depressed mood during early adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 579–594.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Brière, F. N., Janosz, M., Fallu, J.-S., & Morizot, J. (2015). Adolescent trajectories of depressive symptoms: Codevelopment of behavioral and academic problems. Journal of Adolescent Health, 57(3), 313–319.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Calado, F., Alexandre, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Prevalence of adolescent problem gambling: A systematic review of recent research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 33(2), 397–424.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. Carbonneau, R., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2015a). Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29, 1012–1021.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Carbonneau, R., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2015b). Variety of gambling activities from adolscence to age 30 and association with gambling problems: A 15-year longitudinal study of a general population sample. Addiction, 110(12), 1985–1993.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Chaiton, M., Contreras, G., Brunet, J., Sabiston, C. M., O’Loughlin, E., Low, N. C. P., et al. (2013). Heterogeneity of depressive symptom trajectories through adolescence: Predicting outcomes in young adulthood. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(2), 96–105.Google Scholar
  14. Chinneck, A., Mackinnon, S. P., & Stewart, S. H. (2016). Investigating possible reciprocal relationships between depressive and problem gambling symptoms in emerging adults. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(2), 93–101.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cohen, P., Kasen, S., Chen, H., Hartmark, C., & Gorden, K. (2003). Variations in patterns of developmental transitions in the emerging adulthood period. Developmental Psychology, 39, 657–669.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Colman, I., Zeng, Y., McMartin, S. E., Naicker, K., Ataullahjan, A., Weeks, M., et al. (2014). Protective factors against depression during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: Findings from a national Canadian cohort. Preventative Medicine, 65, 28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). NEO PI-R professional manual. Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Costello, D. M., Swendsen, J., Rose, J. S., & Dierker, L. C. (2008). Risk and protective factors associated with trajectories of depressed mood from adolescence to early adulthood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 173–183.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Currie, S. R., Hodgins, D. C., & Casey, D. M. (2013). Validity of the problem gambling severity index interpretive categories. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 311–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Dekker, M. C., Ferdinand, R. F., Van Lang, N. D. J., Bongers, I. L., Van Der Ende, J., & Verhulst, F. C. (2007). Developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms from early childhood to late adolescence: Gender differences and adult outcome. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 48, 657–666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Dickson, L. M., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2008). The prevention of gambling problems in youth: A conceptual framework. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(2), 97–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dowling, N. A., Merkouris, S. S., & Lorains, F. K. (2016). Interventions for comorbid problem gambling and psychiatric disorders: Advancing a developing field of research. Addictive Behaviors, 58, 21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Dussault, F., Brendgen, M., Vitaro, F., Carbonneau, R., Boivin, M., & Tremblay, R. (2016). Co-morbidity between gambling problems and depressive symptoms: A longitudinal perspective of risk and protective factors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(2), 547–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Edgerton, J. D., Melnyk, T. S., & Roberts, L. W. (2015). An exploratory study of multiple distinct gambling trajectories in emerging adults. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(6), 743–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. El-Guebaly, N., Patten, S. B., Currie, S. R., Williams, J. M., Beck, C., & Maxwell, C. (2006). Epidemiological associations between gambling behavior, substance use and mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 275–287.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Enders, C. (2010). Applied missing data analysis. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Evans, L. D., Kouros, C., Frankel, S. A., McCauley, E., Diamond, G. S., Schloredt, K. A., et al. (2015). Longitudinal relations between stress and depressive symptoms in youth: Coping as a mediator. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43, 355–368.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., & Horwood, L. J. (2007). Recurrence of major depression in adolescence and early adulthood, and later mental health, educational and economic outcomes. British Journal of Psychiatry, 191, 335–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  30. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1980). An analysis of coping in a middle-aged community sample. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 21(3), 219–239.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1988). Ways of coping questionnaire sampler set: Manual, test booklet, scoring key. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden Inc.Google Scholar
  32. Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Krahn, H. J. (2006). Depression, self-esteem, and anger in emerging adulthood: Seven-year trajectories. Developmental Psychology, 42, 350–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ge, X., Lorenz, F. O., Conger, R. D., Elder, G. H., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Trajectories of stressful life events and depressive symptoms during adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 30, 467–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ge, X., Natsuaki, M. N., & Conger, R. D. (2006). Trajectories of depressive symptoms and stressful life events among male and female adolescents in divorced and nondivorced families. Development and Psychopathology, 18(1), 253–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Goudriaan, A. E., Slutske, W. S., Krull, J. L., & Sher, K. J. (2009). Longitudinal patterns of gambling activities and associated risk factors in college students. Addiction, 104, 1219–1232.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Granö, N., Keltikangas-Järvinen, L., Kouvonen, A., Virtanen, M., Elovainio, M., Vahtera, J., et al. (2007). Impulsivity as a predictor of newly diagnosed depression. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 48(2), 173–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Grant, K. E., Compas, B. E., Thurm, A. E., McMahon, S. D., & Gipson, P. (2004). Stressors and child and adolescent psychopathology: Measurement issues and prospective effects. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 412–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Green, S. B., Akey, T. M., Fleming, K. K., Hershberger, S. L., & Marquis, J. G. (1997). Effect of the number of scale points on Chi square fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis. Structural Equation Modeling, 4, 108–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Griffiths, M. D. (2006). A case study of binge problem gambling. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4(4), 369–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gupta, R., Derevensky, J., & Manget, N. (2004). Coping strategies employed by adolescents with gambling problems. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 9(3), 115–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Moffitt, T. E., Silva, P. A., McGee, R., & Angell, K. E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 128–140.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hardoon, K. K., Gupta, R., & Derenvensky, J. L. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(2), 170–179.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Hayatbakhsh, M. R., Clavarino, A., Williams, G. M., Bor, W., & Najman, J. M. (2012). Young adults’ gambling and its association with mental health and substance use problems. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 36(2), 160–166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Huang, J. H., & Boyer, R. (2007). Epidemiology of youth gambling problems in Canada: A national prevalence study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 657–665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Hyde, J. S., Mezulis, A. H., & Abramson, L. Y. (2008). The ABCs of depression: Integrating affective, biological, and cognitive models to explain the emergence of the gender difference in depression. Psychological Review, 115, 291–313.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Ibanez, A., Blanco, C., Donahue, E., Lesieur, H. R., Perez de Castro, I., Fernandez-Piqueras, J., et al. (2001). Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gamblers seeking treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1733–1735.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Ireland, J. L., Boustead, R., & Ireland, C. A. (2005). Coping style and psychological health among adolescent prisoners: A study of young and juvenile offenders. Journal of Adolescence, 28, 411–423.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Jung, T., & Wickrama, K. A. S. (2008). An introduction to latent class growth analysis and growth mixture modeling. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2(1), 302–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kessler, R. C., Andrews, G., Mroczek, D., et al. (1998). The World Health Organization composite international diagnostic interview short form (CIDI-SF). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 7, 171–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kim, H. K., Capaldi, D. M., & Stoolmiller, M. (2003). Depressive symptoms across adolescence and young adulthood in men: Predictions from parental and contextual risk factors. Developmental Psychopathology, 15, 469–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim, S. W., Grant, J. E., Eckert, E. D., Faris, P. L., & Hartman, B. K. (2006). Pathological gambling and mood disorders: Clinical associations and treatment implications. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 109–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Lai, H. M., Cleary, M., Sitharthan, T., & Hunt, G. E. (2015). Prevalence of comorbid substance use, anxiety and mood disorders in epidemiological surveys, 1990–2014: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 154, 1–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lightsey, O. R., Jr., & Hulsey, C. D. (2002). Implusivity, coping, stress, and problem gambling among university students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 202–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lorains, F. K., Cowlishaw, S., & Thomas, S. A. (2011). Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. Addiction, 106(3), 490–498.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Milosevic, A., & Ledgerwood, D. M. (2010). The subtyping of pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 988–998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide: Version 7. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
  57. Myrseth, H., Pallesen, S., Molde, H., Johnsen, B. H., & Lorvik, I. M. (2009). Personality factors as predictors of pathological gambling. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(8), 933–937.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nagin, D. S. (2005). Group-based modelling of development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nagin, D. S., & Tremblay, R. (2005). Developmental trajectory groups: Fact or useful statistical fiction? Criminology, 43(4), 873–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Natsuaki, M. N., Biehl, M. C., & Ge, X. (2009). Trajectories of depressed mood from early adolescence to young adulthood: The effects of pubertal timing and adolescent dating. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 19(1), 47–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson, C. B., Kessler, R. C., & Mroczek, D. (2001). Scoring the World Health Organization’s composite international diagnostic interview short form (CIDI-SF). Geneva (CH): World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  62. Ng, C. S. M., & Hurry, J. (2011). Depression amongst Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong: An evaluation of a stress moderation model. Social Indicators Research, 100(3), 499–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nower, L., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2004). The relationship of impulsivity, sensastion seeking, coping and substance use in youth gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 49–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Nylund, K. L., Aspaouhov, A., & Muthen, B. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class and growth mixture modeling. A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14, 535–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Patton, J. H., Stanford, M. S., & Barratt, E. S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt impulsiveness scale. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(6), 768–774.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Petry, N. M., & Champine, R. (2012). Gambling and drug abuse. In J. Verster, K. Brady, M. Galanter, & P. Conrod (Eds.), Drug abuse and addiction in medical illness (pp. 489–496). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Petry, N. M., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2005). Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, 564–574.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Petry, N. M., & Weiss, L. (2009). Social support is associated with gambling treatement outcomes in pathological gamblers. American Journal on Addictions, 18, 402–408.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Pettit, J. W., Lewinsohn, P. M., Seeley, J. R., Roberts, R. E., & Yaroslavsky, I. (2010). Developmental relations between depressive symptoms, minor hassles, and major events from adolescence through age 30 years. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 119(4), 811–824.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. Raftery, A. E. (1995). Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociological Methodology, 25, 111–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ram, N., & Grimm, K. J. (2009). Growth mixture modeling: A method for identifying differences in longitudinal change among unobserved groups. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 33(6), 565–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rao, U., Hammen, C., & Daley, S. E. (1999). Continuity of depression during the transition to adulthood: A 5-year longitudinal study of young women. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38, 908–915.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Rao, U., Ryan, N. D., Birmaher, B., Dahl, R. E., Williamson, D. E., Kaufman, J., et al. (1995). Unipolar depression in adolescents: Clinical outcome in adulthood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 566–578.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rawana, J. S., & Morgan, A. S. (2014). Trajectories of depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood: The role of self-esteem and body-related predictors. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 43, 597–611.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Reinherz, H. Z., Giaconia, R. M., Hauf, A. M., Wasserman, M. S., & Silverman, A. B. (1999). Major depression in the transition to adulthood: Risks and impairments. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 500–510.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Repetto, P. B., Caldwell, C. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2005). A longitudinal study of the relationship between depressive symptoms and cigarette use among African American Adolescents. Health Psychology, 24(2), 209–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Rieger, S., Gollner, R., Tautwein, U., & Roberts, T. (2016). Low self-esteem prospectively predicts depression in the transition to young adulthood: A replication of Orth, Robins, and Roberts (2008). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 110(1), e16–e22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Robinson, E. J., Shankman, S. A., & McFarland, B. R. (2009). Independent associations between personality trits and clinical characteristics of depression. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 197, 476–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rodriguez, D., Moss, H. B., & Audrain-McGovern, J. (2005). Developmental heterogeneity in adolescent depressive symptoms: Associations with smoking behavior. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 200–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rueger, S. Y., Malecki, C. K., Pyun, Y., Aycock, C., & Coyle, S. (2016). Meta-analytic review of the association between perceived social support and depression in childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 142(10), 1017–1067.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Schulenberg, J. E., & Maggs, J. L. (2002). A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. Journal of Alcohol Studies, 14(Suppl.), 54–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Schulenberg, J., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Johnston, L. D. (2005). Early adult transitions and their relation to well-being and substance use. In R. A. Settersten Jr., F. F. Furstenberg Jr., & R. G. Rumbaut (Eds.), On the frontier of adulthood: Theory, research, and public policy (pp. 417–453). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schulenberg, J. E., & Zarrett, N. R. (2006). Mental health during emerging adulthood: Continuity and discontinuity in courses, causes, and functions. In J. J. Arnett & J. L. Tanner (Eds.), Emerging adults in America: Coming of age in the 21st century (pp. 135–172). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Statistics Canada. (2003). Canadian community health survey, cycle 2.1. Available online at Accessed 19 Oct 2017.
  86. Stoolmiller, M., Kim, H. K., & Capaldi, D. M. (2005). The course of depressive symptoms in men from early adolescence to young adulthood: Identifying latent trajectories and early predictors. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114, 331–345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Sullivan, F. E., Fiellin, D. A., & O’Connor, P. G. (2005). The prevalence and impact of alcohol problems in major depression: A systematic review. American Journal of Medicine, 118(4), 330–341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Sussman, S., & Arnett, J. J. (2014). Emerging adulthood: Developmental period facilitative of addictions. Evaluation and the Health Professions, 37(2), 147–155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., Ladouceur, R., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Trajectories of gambling during adolesence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 47–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Volberg, R. A., Gupta, R., Griffiths, M. D., Olason, D. T., & Delfabbro, P. (2010). An international perspective on youth gambling prevalence studies. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22, 3–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Volberg, R. A., Reitzes, D. C., & Boles, J. (1997). Exploring the links between gambling, problem gambling, and self-esteem. Deviant Behavior, 18(4), 321–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Walters, E. E., Kessler, R. C., Nelson, C. B., & Mroczek, D. (2002). Scoring the World Health Organization’s composite international diagnostic interview short form (CIDI-SF).Google Scholar
  93. Wang, M., & Bodner, T. E. (2007). Growth mixture modeling: Identifying and predicting unobserved subpopulations with longitudinal data. Organizational Research Methods, 10(4), 635–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M., & Hoffman, J. H. (2008). The prevalence of problem gambling among U.S. adolescents and young adults: Results from a National Survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 119–133.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M., & Hoffman, J. H. (2011). Gambling and problem gambling across the lifespan. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 49–61.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. Wiersma, J. E., van Oppen, P., van Schaik, D., van der Does, A., Beekman, A., & Penninx, B. (2011). Psychological characteristics of chronic depression: A longitudinal cohort study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 72, 288–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Williams, R. J., & Volberg, R. A. (2009). Impact of survey description, administration format, and exclusionary criteria on population prevalence rates of problem gambling. International Gambling Studies, 9(2), 101–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Williams, R. J., & Volberg, R. A. (2010). Best practices in the population assessment of problem gambling. Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. Guelph, Ontario, Canada, March 31, 2010.Google Scholar
  99. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Botzet, A., & Stutske, W. S. (2005). Pathways of youth gambling severity. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19(1), 104–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Wittchen, H. U. (1994). Reliability and validity of studies of the WHO composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI): A critical review. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 28, 57–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Wynne, H. J. (2003). Introducing the Canadian problem gambling index. Calmar, Alberta: Wynne Resources.Google Scholar
  102. Zarate, C. A., Jr. (2010). Psychiatric disorders in young adults: Depression assessment and treatment. In J. E. Grant & M. N. Potenza (Eds.), Young adult mental health (pp. 206–230). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W., Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1), 30–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations