Differential Effects of Formal and Informal Gambling on Symptoms of Problem Gambling During Voluntary Self-Exclusion
- 182 Downloads
Voluntary self-exclusion (VSE) programs enable problem gamblers to engage in a break from casino-based gambling. The current study analyzed the effects of a VSE program in British Columbia, Canada on problem gambling symptoms and the comparative reductions in problem gambling symptoms when participants abstained from gambling, continued to participate in non-casino based gambling, or attempted to violate their exclusion contract. 269 participants completed two telephone interviews over a 6-month period. Participants were administered the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI). Substantial reductions in PGSI scores were observed after 6 months. Program violators had significantly smaller PGSI Difference Scores by Time 2 compared to those who continued to gamble outside of the casino and those who completely abstained from all gambling. There were no significant differences between those who gambled informally and those who abstained. A multiple regression identified that while access to counselling and length of enrollment also contributed to the reduction in PGSI scores, violation attempts were most strongly associated with smaller reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. These results imply that some gamblers can successfully engage in non-casino based forms of gambling and still experience reductions in symptoms of problem gambling. Future analyses will explore characteristics associated with group membership that may help to identify which participants can successfully engage in non-casino based gambling without re-triggering symptoms of problem gambling.
KeywordsProblem gambling Gambling disorder Voluntary self-exclusion Controlled gambling
The larger research project from which this data was drawn was funded by the British Columbia Lottery Corporation.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Human and Animal Rights
This research involved human participants and, therefore, ethical approval was sought from and received by the University’s Human Research Ethics Board.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.Google Scholar
- Cohen, I. M., McCormick, A. V., & Corrado, R. R. (2011). BCLC’s voluntary self-exclusion program: Perceptions and experiences of a sample of program participants. Abbotsford, BC: BC Centre for Social Responsibility.Google Scholar
- Cohen, I. M., McCormick, A. V., & Davies, G. (2017). British Columbia Lottery Corporation’s voluntary self-exclusion program from the perspectives and experiences of program participants. Abbotsford, BC: Centre for Public Safety and Criminal Justice Research, University of the Fraser Valley.Google Scholar
- Daughters, S., Lejuez, C. W., Lesieur, H. R., Strong, D. R., & Zvolensky, M. J. (2003). Towards a better understanding of gambling treatment failure: Implications of translational research. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 573–586. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(03)00037-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dragicevic, S., Percy, C., Kudic, A., & Parke, J. (2015). A descriptive analysis of demographic and behavioral data from internet gamblers and those who self-exclude from online gambling platforms. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31, 105–132. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-013-9418-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferris, J. & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final Report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- George, D., & Mallery, P. (2003). SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference. 11.0 update (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., Gosselin, P., Laberge, M., & Blaszczynski, A. (2001). Drop-outs in clinical research: Do results reported in the field of addiction reflect clinical reality? The Behavior Therapist, 24, 44–46.Google Scholar
- Leblond, J., Ladouceur, R., & Blaszyzynski, A. (2003). Which pathological gamblers will complete treatment? British Journal of Criminology, 42, 205–209.Google Scholar
- Marshall, K., & Wynne, H. (2003). Fighting the odds. Perspectives [Catalogue no. 75-001-XIE], pp. 5–12. Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
- R.A. Malatest & Associates Ltd. (2014). 2014 British Columbia Problem Gambling Prevalence Study. Submitted to the Gaming Policy and Enforcement Branch, Ministry of Finance: British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. (1999). Gambling and Problem Gambling in Oregon. Report prepared for the Oregon Gambling Addiction Treatment Foundation.Google Scholar