Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 807–822 | Cite as

Psychological Vulnerability and Problem Gambling: The Mediational Role of Cognitive Distortions

  • David Lévesque
  • Serge Sévigny
  • Isabelle Giroux
  • Christian Jacques
Original Paper

Abstract

Despite numerous studies demonstrating the influence of cognitive distortions on gambling problem severity, empirical data regarding the role of psychological vulnerability on the latter is limited. Hence, this study assesses the mediating effect of cognitive distortions between psychological vulnerability (personality and mood), and gambling problem severity. It also verifies whether the relationships between these variables differs according to the preferred gambling activity. The sample is composed of 272 male gamblers [191 poker players; 81 video lottery terminal (VLT) players] aged between 18 and 82 years (M = 35.2). Bootstrap analysis results revealed that cognitive distortions mediate the effect of narcissism on gambling problem severity for both groups. The level of depression for VLT players significantly predicted gambling problem severity, both directly and indirectly via the mediating effect of cognitive distortions. Mediation analyses also indicated that narcissism had an indirect impact on problem gambling through cognitive distortions for both groups. These findings suggest that certain vulnerabilities related to personality and mood may influence cognitive distortion intensity and gambling problem severity. In addition, psychological vulnerabilities could differ based on preferred gambling activity. These results may be useful for prevention policies, identifying high risk gamblers and planning psychological interventions.

Keywords

Problem gambling Poker Video lottery terminals Cognitive distortion Mediation Personality Mood 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was financed by the Fonds de recherche du QuébecSociété et culture (FRQ-SC; #2014-JU-173029) and the ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux (MSSS) within the scope of the Concerted Action program. The doctoral student (first author) received scholarships from the Fonds de recherche du QuébecSociété et culture (FRQ-SC; #201856) and the Centre de réadaptation en dépendance de MontréalInstitut universitaire (CRDM-IU). The data and ideas in the manuscript were presented at the 16th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Standards

The manuscript given meets the ethics requirement for research involving human participants and was approved by the ethics committee of Université Laval (Approval No. 2013-038 A-2).

References

  1. Barik, H., Sarrazin, G., Simon, M., & Gillet, I. (1998). Inventaire de dépression de Beck II [Beck Depression Inventory II]. Toronto: Hartcourt Brace and Compagny.Google Scholar
  2. Barrault, S., & Varescon, I. (2012). Distorsions cognitives et pratique de jeu de hasard et d’argent: État de la question [Cognitive distortions and gambling behaviours: State of the question]. Psychologie Française, 57(1), 17–29.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psfr.2012.01.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(6), 893–897.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.6.893.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  5. Bergeron, J., & Prud’homme, K. (1999). Le questionnaire de recherche de sensations forme V de Zuckerman [Sensation Seeking Scale V questionnaire]. Unpublished manuscript. Montréal: Laboratoire de simulation de conduite, Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
  6. Blanco, C., Orensanz-Muñoz, L., Blanco-Jerez, C., & Saiz-Ruiz, J. (1996). Pathological gambling and platelet MAO activity: A psychobiological study. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(1), 119–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97(5), 487–499.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00015.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaszczynski, A., Wilson, A. C., & McConaghy, N. (1986). Sensation-seeking and pathological gambling. British Journal of Addiction, 81(1), 113–117.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1986.tb00301.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bonnaire, C., Bungener, C., & Varescon, I. (2006). Pathological gambling and sensation seeking—How do gamblers playing games of chance in cafés differ from those who bet on horses at the racetrack? Addiction Research & Theory, 14(6), 619–629.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16066350600964296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bonnaire, C., Bungener, C., & Varescon, I. (2009). Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: Comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(4), 455–471.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-009-9142-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brin, J. (2011). Adaptation et validation française du Narcissistic Personality Inventory [French adaptation and validation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory]. Mémoire doctoral, École de psychologie, Faculté des sciences sociales, Université Laval, Québec.Google Scholar
  12. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136–162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  14. Cain, N. M., Pincus, A. L., & Ansell, E. B. (2008). Narcissism at the crossroads: Phenotypic description of pathological narcissism across clinical theory, social/personality psychology, and psychiatric diagnosis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(4), 638–656.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2007.09.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Carrasco, J. L., Sáiz-Ruiz, J., Hollander, E., César, J., & López-Ibor, J. J. (1994). Low platelet monoamine oxidase activity in pathological gambling. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 90(6), 427–431.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1994.tb01619.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chrétien, M., Giroux, I., Goulet, A., Jacques, C., & Bouchard, S. (2017). Cognitive restructuring of gambling-related thoughts: A systematic review. Addictive Behaviors, 75, 108–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.07.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  19. Coman, G. J., Burrows, G. D., & Evans, B. J. (1997). Stress and anxiety as factors in the onset of problem gambling: Implications for treatment. Stress Medicine, 13, 235–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Coventry, K. R., & Brown, R. I. (1993). Sensation seeking, gambling and gambling addictions. Addiction, 88(4), 541–554.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1993.tb02061.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Diskin, K. M., & Hodgins, D. C. (1999). Narrowing of attention and dissociation in pathological video lottery gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 17–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the Beck Depression Inventory—II. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 83–89.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.10.2.83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  24. Freeston, M. H., Ladouceur, R., Thibodeau, N., Gagnon, F., & Rhéaume, J. (1994). L’inventaire d’anxiété de Beck: Propriétés psychométriques d’une traduction française [Beck Anxiety Inventory: Psychometric properties of the French translation]. L’Encéphale, 20, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gaboury, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1989). Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4(4), 411–420.Google Scholar
  26. Gabriel, M. T., Critelli, J. W., & Ee, J. S. (1994). Narcissistic illusions in self-evaluations of intelligence and attractiveness. Journal of Personality, 62(1), 143–155.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1994.tb00798.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Getty, H. A., Watson, J., & Frisch, G. R. (2000). A comparison of depression and styles of coping in male and female GA members and controls. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(4), 377–391.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1009480106531.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Grall-Bronnec, M., Bouju, G., Sébille-Rivain, V., Gorwood, P., Boutin, C., Vénisse, J.-L., et al. (2012). A French adaptation of the Gambling-Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS): A useful tool for assessment of irrational thoughts among gamblers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 27, 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.4309/jgi.2012.27.9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Grijalva, E., Newman, D. A., Tay, L., Donnellan, M. B., Harms, P. D., Robins, R. W., et al. (2015). Gender differences in narcissism: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 141(2), 261.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420.  https://doi.org/10.1080/03637750903310360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2(1), 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. John, O. P., & Robins, R. W. (1994). Accuracy and bias in self-perception: Individual differences in self-enhancement and the role of narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(1), 206–219.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.66.1.206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kairouz, S., & Nadeau, L. (2014). Portrait du jeu au Québec: Prévalence, incidence et trajectoires sur quatre ans [Portrait of gambling in Québec: Prevalence, incidence and trajectories over four years]. Montréal, QC: Concordia University.Google Scholar
  34. Kenny, D. A. (2016). Mediation. Retrieved December 6, 2017 from http://davidakenny.net/cm/mediate.htm.
  35. Kim, S. W., Grant, J. E., Eckert, E. D., Faris, P. L., & Hartman, B. K. (2006). Pathological gambling and mood disorders: Clinical associations and treatment implications. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92(1), 109–116.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.040.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Ladouceur, R., Boutin, C., Doucet, C., Lachance, S., & Sylvain, C. (2000). Programme d’évaluation et de traitement des joueurs excessifs [Evaluation and treatment program for excessive gamblers]. Quebec: Université Laval.Google Scholar
  37. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioural therapies (pp. 89–120). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  38. Lakey, C. E., Rose, P., Campbell, W. K., & Goodie, A. S. (2008). Probing the link between narcissism and gambling: The mediating role of judgment and decision-making biases. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21(2), 113–137.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32(2), 311–328.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.32.2.311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers. Psychiatry Research, 144(1), 17–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2005.08.017.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lesieur, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. J. (1991). Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association task force on DSM-IV committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified). Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(1), 5–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Lévesque, D., Sévigny, S., Giroux, I., & Jacques, C. (2017). Gambling-Related Cognition Scale (GRCS): Are skills-based games at a disadvantage? Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 31(6), 647–654.  https://doi.org/10.1037/adb0000297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lindberg, A., Fernie, B. A., & Spada, M. M. (2011). Metacognitions in problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(1), 73–81.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-010-9193-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Little, R. J. A. (1988). A test of missing completely at random for multivariate data with missing values. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 1198–1202.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2290157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Little, T. D. (1997). Mean and covariance structures (MACS) analyses of cross-cultural data: Practical and theoretical issues. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 32(1), 53–76.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr3201_3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Lorains, F. K., Cowlishaw, S., & Thomas, S. A. (2011). Prevalence of comorbid disorders in problem and pathological gambling: Systematic review and meta-analysis of population surveys. Addiction, 106, 490–498.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03300.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Marks, M. E., & Lesieur, H. R. (1992). A feminist critique of problem gambling research. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morf, C. C., & Rhodewalt, F. (2001). Expanding the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism: Research directions for the future. Psychological Inquiry, 12(4), 243–251.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1204_3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mplus user‘s guide, version 6. Los Angeles, CA: Authors.Google Scholar
  50. Myrseth, H., Tverå, R., Hagatun, S., & Lindgren, C. (2012). A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydivers. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(4), 340–346.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00944.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. O’Brien, C. (2011). Depression, cause or consequence of pathological gambling and its implications for treatment. Counselling Psychology Review, 26(1), 53–61.Google Scholar
  52. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2008). The relationship between gambling cognitions, psychological states, and gambling: A cross-cultural study of Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39(2), 147–161.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022107312587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pallesen, S., Mitsem, M., Kvale, G., Johnsen, B.-H., & Molde, H. (2005). Outcome of psychological treatments of pathological gambling: A review and meta-analysis. Addiction, 100(10), 1412–1422.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2005.01204.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Pincus, A. L., & Lukowitsky, M. R. (2010). Pathological narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 421–446.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.121208.131215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.  https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Raskin, R., & Terry, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(5), 890–902.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.5.890.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. (2002). Pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(7), 1009–1061.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00101-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004). The Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Addiction, 99(6), 757–769.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00753.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Ronningstam, E. F. (2005). Identifying and understand the narcissistic personality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive–behavioral model of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(1), 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(00)00087-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Valleur, M., Codina, I., Vénisse, J. L., Romo, L., Magalon, D., Fatséas, M., et al. (2016). Towards a validation of the three pathways model of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(2), 757–771.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-015-9545-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Vitaro, F., Arseneault, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (1999). Impulsivity predicts problem gambling in low SES adolescent males. Addiction, 94(4), 565–575.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1999.94456511.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  64. Zuckerman, M., Eysenck, S. B., & Eysenck, H. J. (1978). Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46(1), 139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.École de psychologieUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada
  2. 2.Département des fondements et pratiques en éducationUniversité LavalQuebec CityCanada

Personalised recommendations