Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 597–615 | Cite as

Casino Self- and Forced Excluders’ Gambling Behavior Before and After Exclusion

  • Roxana KotterEmail author
  • Anja Kräplin
  • Gerhard Bühringer
Original Paper


Casino exclusion programs are intended to prevent or limit gambling-related harm. Although previous research showed that self-exclusion is associated with reduced gambling, it remains unknown whether self- and forced excluded subjects show different patterns of gambling behavior and if exclusion from casino gambling affects all gambling activities. The present study retrospectively investigated (1) the role of voluntariness of exclusion for the first time, and (2) general gambling behavior of excluded individuals before and after exclusion. A total of N = 215 casino excluders (self-excluders: n = 187, forced excluders: n = 28) completed an online survey or a face-to-face interview up to 8 years after enrollment. Self- and forced excluders showed similar rates of abstinence (self-excluders: 19.3%, forced excluders: 28.6%) and reduction (self-excluders: 67.4%, forced excluders: 60.7%), even though forced excluders reported a significantly greater initial gambling intensity compared to self-excluders (e.g., pre-exclusion gambling time; self-excluders: 3.2 days/week, forced excluders: 4.3 days/week). Overall, results indicated that 20.5% of excluders stopped all gambling activities and another 66.5% reduced their gambling. Those who continued gambling significantly reduced this behavior in every segment, except for gambling halls. Findings indicate that self- and forced exclusion are associated with similarly reduced gambling behavior, even in non-excluded segments. However, unchanged gambling in gambling halls emphasizes the importance to implement consistent exclusion programs over all gambling segments.


Gambling Prevention Casino Self-exclusion Forced exclusion 



This research was funded in part by an unrestricted research donation by the Federal Association of German Casinos (BupriS) to the Technical University Dresden. Roxana Kotter and Anja Kräplin declare that they have no further conflict of interest. Gerhard Bühringer has received unrestricted research grants from the Bavarian State Ministry of Finance (regulatory authority for and operator of the state gambling monopoly), via the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Public Health, the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (regulatory authority for the commercial gaming industry), and from public and private gambling providers.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Work Group Addictive Behaviors, Risk Analysis, and Risk Management, Department of PsychologyTechnical University DresdenDresdenGermany
  2. 2.IFT Institut für TherapieforschungMunichGermany

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