Assessing the Need for Higher Levels of Care Among Problem Gambling Outpatients

  • David M. Ledgerwood
  • Cynthia L. Arfken
  • Michigan Association on Problem Gambling
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10899-017-9677-3

Cite this article as:
Ledgerwood, D.M., Arfken, C.L. & Michigan Association on Problem Gambling J Gambl Stud (2017). doi:10.1007/s10899-017-9677-3


Most treatment for gambling disorder is provided on an outpatient basis. Only a small number of jurisdictions in North America provide higher levels of gambling treatment, such as residential or intensive outpatient (IOP) care, despite the potential need for these services. Further, there appear to be few guidelines for determining appropriate level of gambling treatment. The aim of the present study was to assess the appropriateness of higher levels of problem gambling care among clients receiving outpatient treatment. Problem gamblers and their therapists independently completed questionnaires that assessed the need and desire for residential and IOP treatment. About 42% of problem gambling outpatients noted that they would be “probably” or “definitely” willing to attend residential treatment, and about half indicated they would be equally likely to attend IOP. Therapists recommended about a third of their clients as appropriate for higher levels of care. For both client and therapist assessments, there was a significant association between desire or recommendation for level of treatment and severity of gambling and co-occurring problems. Further, therapist recommendations for level of care were significantly associated with client willingness to attend higher levels of treatment. Our data reveal the potential need for higher levels of care for problem gambling, as evaluated by clients and their therapists. Policy implications for the funding of residential and IOP treatment are discussed.


Gambling disorder Residential treatment Outpatient treatment Level of care 

Funding information

Funder NameGrant NumberFunding Note
State of Michigan

    Copyright information

    © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

    Authors and Affiliations

    1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeurosciencesWayne State University School of MedicineDetroitUSA

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