Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 425–435 | Cite as

“I Am Becoming More and More Like My Eldest Brother!”: The Relationship Between Older Siblings, Adolescent Gambling Severity, and the Attenuating Role of Parents in a Large-Scale Nationally Representative Survey Study

  • Natale Canale
  • Alessio Vieno
  • Mark D. Griffiths
  • Valeria Siciliano
  • Arianna Cutilli
  • Sabrina Molinaro
Original Paper

Abstract

The present study examined the association between having older siblings who gamble and adolescent at-risk/problem gambling and how parents (i.e., parental knowledge of their whereabouts) and peers might moderate such effects. Data were drawn from the ESPAD®Italia2012 survey (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) comprising a nationally representative Italian sample of adolescents. The analysis was carried out on a subsample of 10,063 Italian students aged 15–19 years (average age = 17.10; 55 % girls) who had at least one older sibling and who had gambled at some point in their lives. Respondents’ problem gambling severity, older gambler sibling, gambler peers, parental knowledge, and socio-demographic characteristics were individually assessed. Multinomial logistic regression analyses including two- and three-way interactions were conducted. The odds of being an at-risk/problem gambler were higher among high school students with older siblings that gambled and those with peers who gambled. Higher parental knowledge (of who the adolescent was with and where they were in their leisure time) was associated with lower rates of at-risk/problem gambling. There was also an interaction between gamblers with older siblings and parental knowledge. The combination of having siblings who gambled and a greater level of parental knowledge was associated with lower levels of problem gambling. The present study confirmed the occurrence of social risk processes (older siblings and peers who gambled) and demonstrated that gambling among older siblings and peers represents an important contextual factor for increased at-risk/problem gambling. However, parental knowledge appears to be sufficient to counterbalance the influence of older siblings.

Keywords

Siblings Parents Gambling ESPAD data Adolescents 

References

  1. Barber, B. K., Stolz, H. E., Olsen, J. A., Collins, W. A., & Burchinal, M. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control: Assessing relevance across time, culture, and method. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70, 1–137.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barni, D., Roccato, M., Vieno, A., & Alfieri, S. (2014). Birth order and conservatism: A multilevel test of Sulloway’s “Born to rebel” thesis. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blinn-Pike, L., Worthy, S. L., & Jonkman, J. N. (2010). Adolescent gambling: A review of an emerging field of research. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(3), 223–236.Google Scholar
  4. Boyle, M. H., Sanford, M., Szatmari, P., Merikanga, K., & Offord, D. R. (2001). Familial influences on substance use by adolescents and young adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 206–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brook, J. S., Brook, D. W., Richter, L., & Whiteman, M. (2003). Risk and protective factors of adolescent drug use: Implications for prevention. In Z. Sloboda & W. J. Bukoski (Eds.), Handbook of drug abuse prevention: Theory, science and practice (pp. 265–287). New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Browne, B. A., & Brown, D. J. (1994). Predictors of lottery gambling among American college students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134(3), 339–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M. D., Rubaltelli, E., & Santinello, M. (2015). Trait urgency and gambling problems in young people by age: The mediating role of decision-making processes. Addictive Behaviors, 46, 39–44.Google Scholar
  8. Canale, N., Griffiths, M. D., Vieno, A., Siciliano, V., & Molinaro, S. (2016a). Impact of internet gambling on problem gambling among adolescents in Italy: Findings from a large-scale nationally representative survey. Computers in Human Behavior, 57, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canale, N., Vieno, A., ter Bogt, T., Pastore, M., Siciliano, V., & Molinaro, S. (2016b). Adolescent gambling-oriented attitudes mediate the relationship between perceived parental knowledge and adolescent gambling: Implications for prevention. Prevention Science. doi:10.1007/s11121-016-0683-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carbonneau, R., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., & Tremblay, R. E. (2015). Trajectories of gambling problems from mid-adolescence to age 30 in a general population cohort. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(4), 1012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Casey, D. M., Williams, R. J., Mossière, A. M., Schopflocher, D. P., el-Guebaly, N., Hodgins, D. C., et al. (2011). The role of family, religiosity, and behavior in adolescent gambling. Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 841–851.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Colasante, E., Gori, M., Bastiani, L., Scalese, M., Siciliano, V., & Molinaro, S. (2014). Italian adolescent gambling behaviour: Psychometric evaluation of the South Oaks gambling screen: Revised for adolescents (SOGS-RA) among a sample of Italian students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30, 789–801.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Conger, R. D., Ge, X., Elder, G. H., Lorenz, F. O., & Simons, R. L. (1994). Economic stress, coercive family process, and developmental problems of adolescents. Child Development, 65(2), 541–561.Google Scholar
  14. Crouter, A. C., & Head, M. R. (2002). Parental monitoring and knowledge of children. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Being and becoming a parent (2nd ed., Vol. 3, pp. 461–483). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  15. Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2005). Further evidence concerning the prevalence of adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Australia: A study of the ATC. International Gambling Studies, 5, 209–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickson, L., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2008). Youth gambling problems: Examining risk and protective factors. International Gambling Studies, 8, 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Foster, D. W., Neighbors, C., Rodriguez, L. M., Lazorwitz, B., & Gonzales, R. (2014). Self-identification as a moderator of the relationship between gambling-related perceived norms and gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(1), 125–140.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Gossrau-Breen, D., Kuntsche, E., & Gmel, G. (2010). My older sibling was drunk–Younger siblings’ drunkenness in relation to parental monitoring and the parent–adolescent relationship. Journal of Adolescence, 33(5), 643–652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Adolescent gambling. In B. Bradford Brown & M. Prinstein (Eds.), Encyclopedia of adolescence (3rd ed., pp. 11–20). San Diego: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1997). Familial and social influences on juvenile gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 179–192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayer, T. (2012). Jugendliche und glücksspielbezogene Probleme: Risikobedingungen, Entwicklungmodelle und Implikationen für präventive Handlungsstrategien [Adolescents and gambling-related problems: Risk factors, developmental models, and implications for preventive actions]. Frankfurt/Main, Germany: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  22. Hayer, T., & Griffiths, M. D. (2015). Gambling. In T. P. Gullotta, R. W. Plant, & M. A. Evans (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent behavioral problems: Evidence-based approaches to prevention and treatment (2nd ed., pp. 539–558). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. Henry, D. B., Kobus, K., & Schoeny, M. E. (2011). Accuracy and bias in adolescents’ perceptions of friends’ substance use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25(1), 80–89.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. Hibell, B., Guttormsson, U., Ahlström, S., Balakireva, O., Bjarnason, T., Kokkevi, A., et al. (2012). The 2011 ESPAD report. Substance use among students in 36 European countries. Stockholm: CAN.Google Scholar
  25. Kiesner, J., Poulin, F., & Dishion, T. J. (2010). Adolescent substance use with friends: Moderating and mediating effects of parental monitoring and peer activity contexts. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (Wayne State University Press), 56(4), 529–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuntsche, E., Gossrau-Breen, D., & Gmel, G. (2009). The role of drunken older siblings and drunken peers in the alcohol–violence nexus. The European Journal of Public Health, 19(4), 394–399.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lee, G. P., Stuart, E. A., Ialongo, N. S., & Martins, S. S. (2014). Parental monitoring trajectories and gambling among a longitudinal cohort of urban youth. Addiction, 109(6), 977–985.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Magoon, M. E., & Ingersoll, G. M. (2006). Parental modeling, attachment, and supervision as moderators of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 1–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. McComb, J. L., & Sabiston, C. M. (2010). Family influences on adolescent gambling behavior: A review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(4), 503–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. McGue, M., Sharma, A., & Benson, P. (1996). Parent and sibling influences on adolescent alcohol use and misuse: Evidence from a US adoption cohort. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 57(1), 8–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. McHale, S. M., & Crouter, A. C. (1996). The family contexts of sibling relationships. In G. Brody (Ed.), Sibling relationships: Their causes and consequences (pp. 173–196). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.Google Scholar
  32. Merton, R. K. (1957). Social theory and social structure. Glencoe, IL: Chicago Free Press.Google Scholar
  33. Molinaro, S., Canale, N., Vieno, A., Lenzi, M., Siciliano, V., Gori, M., et al. (2014). Country-and individual-level determinants of probable problematic gambling in adolescence: A multi-level cross-national comparison. Addiction, 109, 2089–2097.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ólason, D. T., Skarphedinsson, G. A., Jonsdottir, J. E., Mikaelsson, M., & Gretarsson, S. J. (2006). Prevalence estimates of gambling and problem gambling among 13- to 15-year-old adolescents in Reykjavík: An examination of correlates of problem gambling and different accessibility to electronic gambling machines in Iceland. Journal of Gambling Issues, 18, 39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Patterson, G. R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (1984). The correlation of family management practices and delinquency. Child Development, 55, 1299–1307.Google Scholar
  36. Scholte, R. H., Poelen, E. A., Willemsen, G., Boomsma, D. I., & Engels, R. C. (2008). Relative risks of adolescent and young adult alcohol use: The role of drinking fathers, mothers, siblings, and friends. Addictive Behaviors, 33(1), 1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Shead, N. W., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2010). Risk and protective factors associated with youth problem gambling. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22(1), 39–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Skokauskas, N., & Satkeviciute, R. (2007). Adolescent pathological gambling in Kaunas, Lithuania. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 86–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Sweeting, H. (2001). Our family, whose perspective? An investigation of children’s family life and health. Journal of Adolescence, 24(2), 229–250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vachon, J., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Tremblay, R. E. (2004). Adolescent gambling: Relationships with parent gambling and parenting practices. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(4), 398–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Vieno, A., Nation, M., Pastore, M., & Santinello, M. (2009). Parenting and antisocial behavior: A model of the relations between adolescent self-disclosure, parental closeness, parental control, and adolescent antisocial behavior. Developmental Psychology, 45, 1509–1519.Google Scholar
  42. Walther, B., Morgenstern, M., & Hanewinkel, R. (2012). Co-occurrence of addictive behaviours: Personality factors related to substance use, gambling and computer gaming. European Addiction Research, 18(4), 167–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Whiteman, S., & Christiansen, A. (2008). Processes of sibling influence in adolescence: Individual and family correlates. Family Relations, 57, 24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Whiteman, S. D., Jensen, A. C., Mustillo, S. A., & Maggs, J. L. (2016). Understanding sibling influence on adolescents’ alcohol use: Social and cognitive pathways. Addictive Behaviors, 53, 1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wickwire, E. M., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A. W., & Murray, D. M. (2007). Environmental correlates of gambling behavior in urban adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 35(2), 179–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Kim, L. G. (1995). Monitoring adolescent gambling in Minnesota. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 165–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Natale Canale
    • 1
  • Alessio Vieno
    • 1
  • Mark D. Griffiths
    • 2
  • Valeria Siciliano
    • 3
  • Arianna Cutilli
    • 3
  • Sabrina Molinaro
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Developmental and Social PsychologyUniversity of PadovaPaduaItaly
  2. 2.International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology DepartmentNottingham Trent UniversityNottinghamUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Institute of Clinical PhysiologyItalian National Research Council - CNRPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations