Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 33, Issue 2, pp 617–632 | Cite as

Trait Mindfulness, Problem-Gambling Severity, Altered State of Awareness and Urge to Gamble in Poker-Machine Gamblers

  • Charles F. A. McKeith
  • Adam J. Rock
  • Gavin I. Clark
Original Paper

Abstract

In Australia, poker-machine gamblers represent a disproportionate number of problem gamblers. To cultivate a greater understanding of the psychological mechanisms involved in poker-machine gambling, a repeated measures cue-reactivity protocol was administered. A community sample of 38 poker-machine gamblers was assessed for problem-gambling severity and trait mindfulness. Participants were also assessed regarding altered state of awareness (ASA) and urge to gamble at baseline, following a neutral cue, and following a gambling cue. Results indicated that: (a) urge to gamble significantly increased from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge; (b) cue-reactive ASA did not significantly mediate the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue); (c) trait mindfulness was significantly negatively associated with both problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge (i.e., from neutral cue to gambling cue, while controlling for baseline urge); and (d) trait mindfulness did not significantly moderate the effect of problem-gambling severity on cue-reactive urge (from neutral cue to gambling cue). This is the first study to demonstrate a negative association between trait mindfulness and cue-reactive urge to gamble in a population of poker-machine gamblers. Thus, this association merits further evaluation both in relation to poker-machine gambling and other gambling modalities.

Keywords

Poker-machines Gambling cue-reactivity Trait mindfulness Altered state of awareness Slot-machines Urge 

References

  1. Ashrafioun, L., McCarthy, A., & Rosenberg, H. (2012). Methods of assessing craving to gamble: A narrative review. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 26, 536–549. doi:10.1037/a0026367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Australian Government. (2014). Problem gambling. Retrieved from http://www.problemgambling.gov.au/.
  3. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27–45. doi:10.1177/1073191105283504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baudinet, J., & Blaszczynski, A. (2013). Arousal and gambling mode preference: A review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29, 343–358. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9304-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, K., & Ryan, R. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.84.4.822.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bullis, J. R., Boe, H. J., Asnaani, A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2014). The benefits of being mindful: Trait mindfulness predicts less stress reactivity to suppression. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45, 57–66. doi:10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Carlson, L. E., & Brown, K. W. (2005). Validation of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale in a cancer population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 58(1), 29–33. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2004.04.366.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. de Lisle, S., Dowling, N., & Allen, J. (2014). Mechanisms of action in the relationship between mindfulness and problem gambling behaviour. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 12, 206–225. doi:10.1007/s11469-014-9475-4.Google Scholar
  10. Delfabbro, P., & South Australia Independent Gambling Authority. (2008). Australasian gambling review. Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority.Google Scholar
  11. Dickerson, M. (2004). Analysis of clients presenting to problem gambling counseling services, July 2001 to June 2002, client and services analysis report No. 8. Melbourne: Victorian Government Department of Human Resources.Google Scholar
  12. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: User manual. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  13. Franco, C. (2008). Cue reactivity to gambling stimuli. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of New York, Albany. Retrieved from https://books.google.com.au/books?id=cGcUnAtr3P0C&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false.
  14. Gainsbury, S. M., Blankers, M., Wilkinson, C., Schelleman-Offermans, K., & Cousijn, J. (2014). Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: Comparison with effective public health policy. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(4), 771–788. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9389-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Garland, E. (2011). Trait mindfulness predicts attentional and autonomic regulation of alcohol cue-reactivity. Journal of Psychophysiology, 25(4), 180–189. doi:10.1027/0269-8803/a000060.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Gosling, S. D., Vazire, S., Srivastava, S., & John, O. P. (2004). Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about internet questionnaires. American Psychologist, 59, 93. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.2.93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York: The Gilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Holtgraves, T. (2009). Evaluating the Problem Gambling Severity Index. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 105–120. doi:10.1007/s10899-008-9107-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Joukhador, J., Maccallum, F., & Blaszsynski, A. (2003). Differences in cognitive distortions between problem and social gamblers. Psychological Reports, 92, 1203–1214. doi:10.2466/pr0.2003.92.3c.1203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1994). Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  21. Kambouropoulos, N., & Rock, A. J. (2009). Quantifying phenomenology associated with exposure to alcohol-related cues. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 29, 283–295. doi:10.2190/IC.29.3.g.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kambouropoulos, N., & Rock, A. J. (2010). Extraversion and altered state of awareness predict alcohol cue-reactivity. Journal of Individual Differences, 31(4), 178–184. doi:10.1027/1614-0001/a000026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kushner, M. G., Abrams, K., Donahue, C., Thuras, P., Frost, R., & Kim, S. W. (2007). Urge to gamble in problem gamblers exposed to a casino environment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2), 121–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lakey, C., Campbell, W., Brown, K., & Goodie, A. (2007). Dispositional mindfulness as a predictor of the severity of gambling outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(7), 1698–1710. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2007.05.007.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. MacClaren, V. V., Fugelsang, J. A., Harrigan, K. A., & Dixon, M. J. (2012). Effects of impulsivity, reinforcement sensitivity, and cognitive style on pathological gambling symptoms among frequent slot machine players. Personality and Individual Differences, 52, 390–394. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.10.044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. MacKillop, J., & Anderson, E. J. (2007). Further psychometric validation of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29(4), 289–293. doi:10.1007/s10862-007-9045-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCormick, J., & Delfabbro, P. (2011). Electronic gaming machines and altered states of awareness: A pilot investigation. Gambling Research, 23, 41–62.Google Scholar
  28. McCormick, J., Delfabbro, P., & Denson, L. A. (2012). Psychological vulnerability and problem gambling: An application of Durand Jacobs’ general theory of addictions to electronic gaming machine playing in Australia. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 665–690. doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9281-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Monti, P. M., Binkoff, J. A., Abrams, D. B., Zwick, W. R., Nirenberg, T. D., & Liepman, M. R. (1987). Reactivity of alcoholics and nonalcoholics to drinking cues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 122–126. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.96.2.122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Oakes, J., Battersby, M. W., Pols, R. G., & Cromarty, P. (2008). Exposure therapy for problem gambling via videoconferencing: A case report. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 107–118. doi:10.1007/s10899-007-9074-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pekala, R. J. (1991). Quantifying consciousness: An empirical approach. New York: Plenum.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pekala, R. J., Steinberg, J., & Kumar, C. K. (1986). Measurement of phenomenological experience: Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 983–989. doi:10.2466/pms.1986.63.2.983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pekala, R. J., & Wenger, C. F. (1983). Retrospective phenomenological assessment: Mapping consciousness in reference to specific stimulus conditions. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 4(2), 247–274.Google Scholar
  34. Pekala, R. J., Wenger, C. F., & Levine, R. L. (1985). Individual differences in phenomenological experience: States of consciousness as a function of absorption. Journal of personality and social psychology, 48(1), 125–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Petry, N. M. (2003). A comparison of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers based on preferred gambling activity. Addiction, 98, 645–655. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2003.00336.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36(4), 717–731. doi:10.3758/BF03206553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rajesh, S., Ilavarasu, J., & Srinivasan, T. M. (2013). Dispositional mindfulness and its relation to impulsivity in college students. International Journal of Yoga-Philosophy, Psychology and Parapsychology, 1(1), 49. doi:10.4103/2347-5633.123292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. (2004). The Gambling Urge Scale (GUS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 100–105. doi:10.1037/0893-164X.18.2.100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Riley, B. (2012). Experiential avoidance mediates the association between thought suppression and mindfulness with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30, 163–171. doi:10.1007/s10899-012-9342-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Riley, B., Smith, D., & Oakes, J. (2011). Exposure therapy for problem gambling in rural communities: A program model and early outcomes. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 19(3), 142–146. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1584.2011.01199.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rock, A. J., & Kambouropoulos, N. (2007). Toward a phenomenology of urge to drink: A future prospect for the cue-reactivity paradigm. North American Journal of Psychology, 9(2), 387–406.Google Scholar
  42. Rock, A. J., & Kambouropoulos, N. (2008). Conceptualizing craving: Extrapolations from consciousness studies. North American Journal of Psychology, 10(1), 127–146.Google Scholar
  43. Rock, A. J., & Kambouropoulos, N. (2009). Does altered state of awareness mediate the relationship between the unusual experiences trait and alcohol cue-reactivity? North American Journal of Psychology, 11(3), 443–454.Google Scholar
  44. Rock, A. J., & Kambouropoulos, N. (2012). The phenomenology of alcohol cue-reactivity: A partial replication and extension. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 32(1), 75–93. doi:10.2190/IC.32.1.f.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rohsenow, D. J., & Monti, P. M. (1999). Does urge to drink predict relapse after treatment?. Alcohol Research and Health, 23(3), 225–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Rohsenow, D. J., & Niaura, R. S. (1999). Reflections on the state of cue-reactivity theories and research. Addiction, 94(3), 343–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Bussing, A., et al. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4, 3–17. doi:10.1007/s12671-012-0122-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shonin, E., Van Gordon, W., & Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling. Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 2(2), 63–71. doi:10.1556/JBA.2.2013.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Sodano, R., & Wulfert, E. (2010). Cue reactivity in active pathological, abstinent pathological, and regular gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 53–65. doi:10.1007/s10899-009-9146-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. South Australian Department of Families and Communities. (2007). Gambling prevalence in South Australia. Adelaide, South Australia: Government of South Australia.Google Scholar
  51. Tellegen, A., & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (“absorption”), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(3), 268–277. doi:10.1037/h0036681.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Toneatto, T., Pillai, S., & Courtice, E. L. (2014). Mindfulness-enhanced cognitive behavior therapy for problem gambling: A controlled pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 12, 197–205. doi:10.1007/s11469-014-9481-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tricker, C., Rock, A. J., & Clark, G. I. (2015). Cue-reactive altered state of consciousness mediates the relationship between problem-gambling severity and cue-reactive urge in poker-machine gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-015-9549-7.Google Scholar
  54. Walker, M., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Clinical assessment of problem gamblers identified using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (Report prepared by the University of Sydney Gambling Treatment Clinic and Gambling Research Unit for the South Australian Independent Gambling Authority). Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority.Google Scholar
  55. Weinstein, N., Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). A multi-method examination of the effects of mindfulness on stress attribution, coping, and emotional well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 374–385. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.12.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Weinstein, M., & Smith, J. (1992). Isometric squeeze relaxation (progressive relaxation) vs. meditation: Absorption and focusing as predictors of state effects. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75(3), 1263–1271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Winters, K., Specker, S., & Stinchfield, R. (2002). Measuring pathological gambling with the Diagnostic Interview for Gambling Severity (DIGS). In J. J. Marotta, J. A. Cornelius, & W. R. Eadington (Eds.), The downside: Problem and pathological gambling (pp. 143–148). Reno, NV: University of Nevada-Reno.Google Scholar
  58. Wulfert, E., Maxson, J., & Jardin, B. (2009). Cue-specific reactivity in experienced gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 731–735. doi:10.1037/a0017134.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles F. A. McKeith
    • 1
  • Adam J. Rock
    • 1
  • Gavin I. Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Behavioural, Cognitive, and Social SciencesUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia

Personalised recommendations