Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1633–1649 | Cite as

Superstitious Beliefs and Problem Gambling Among Thai Lottery Gamblers: The Mediation Effects of Number Search and Gambling Intensity

Original Paper

Abstract

Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers’ superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers’ superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.

Keywords

Superstitious beliefs Number search Gambling intensity Problem gambling 

References

  1. Abbott, K. R., & Sherratt, T. N. (2011). The evolution of superstition through optimal use of incomplete information. Animal Behaviour, 82(1), 85–92. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.04.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anonymous. (2014). Illegal Lottery Banker Web-board: Fight against Rigged Number. Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.411-11.com/index.php?topic=319.0.
  3. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2009). Adapting the DMS-IV and SOGS scales to measure gambling problems among two groups of Thai lottery gamblers. Paper presented at the International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, May 25–29, 2009, Harrah’s Lake Tahoe, Stateline, Nevada, USA.Google Scholar
  4. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2011). Lottery gambling: A review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 15–33. doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9194-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2013). Problem gambling prevention: Before, during, and after measures. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 11(5), 568–582. doi:10.1007/s11469-013-9429-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., & Chanchalermporn, N. (2007). A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: Hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(2), 201–214. doi:10.1007/s10899-006-9035-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., & Phengphol, V. (2008). Near miss, gambler’s fallacy and entrapment: Their influence on lottery gamblers in Thailand. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 295–305. doi:10.1007/s10899-008-9098-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. ASTV Manager. (2009). Let me be rich with Phumphuang lottery. ASTV Manager, from file:///C:/Users/Vanchai/Downloads/C-090617040019%20(1).pdf. Google Scholar
  9. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, G., Welte, J., Tidwell, M.-C., & Hoffman, J. (2011). Gambling on the lottery: Sociodemographic correlates across the lifespan. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(4), 575–586. doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9228-7.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beaudoin, C. M., & Cox, B. J. (1999). Characteristics of problem gambling in a Canadian context: A preliminary study using a DSM-IV-based questionnaire. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/La Revue canadienne de psychiatrie, 44(5), 483–487.Google Scholar
  12. Beck, J., & Forstmeier, W. (2007). Superstition and velief as unevitable by-products of an adaptive learning strategy. Human Nature, 18(1), 35–46. doi:10.1007/bf02820845.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Center for Gaming Studies. (2014). Mission, objectives, strategy, from http://www.gamblingstudy-th.org/en/about.php.
  14. China Economic Review. (2012). Lottery sales in China booming. Retrieved from http://www.chinaeconomicreview.com/lottery-sales-china-booming-0.
  15. Daily News (2014). Addicted to lottery, teacher steals notebooks, from file:///C:/Users/Vanchai/Downloads/C-140309004025.pdf.Google Scholar
  16. Damisch, L., Stoberock, B., & Mussweiler, T. (2010). Keep your fingers crossed! How superstition improves performance. Psychological Science, 21(7), 1014–1020. doi:10.1177/0956797610372631.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. DeFuentes-Merillas, L., Koeter, M. W. J., Schippers, G. M., & Van Den Brink, W. (2004). Temporal stability of pathological scratchcard gambling among adult scratchcard buyers two years later. Addiction, 99(1), 117–127. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00601.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Erdfelder, E., Faul, F., & Buchner, A. (1996). GPOWER: A general power analysis program. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 28(1), 1–11. doi:10.3758/BF03203630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2004). Lottery participation by youth with gambling problems: Are lottery tickets a gateway to other gambling venues? International Gambling Studies, 4(2), 109–125. doi:10.1080/14459790412331296956.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Goodie, A. S., & Lakey, C. E. (2007). Lottery participation as a marker of and contributor to gambling-related problems in college students. International Gambling Studies, 7(2), 199–211. doi:10.1080/14459790701387568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Government Lottery Office, T. (2014a). Government lottery office act. Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://hopes.glo.or.th/more_news.php?cid=15.
  22. Government Lottery Office, T. (2014b). Report of the auditor and financial statements Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://hopes.glo.or.th/download/upload/finance_2555.pdf.
  23. Gray, H. M., Jónsson, G. K., LaPlante, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2013). Expanding the study of internet gambling behavior: Trends within the Icelandic lottery and sportsbetting platform. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9427-0.
  24. Griffiths, M. (2011). Gambling, superstition, and bingo. i-Gaming Business Affiliate February/March, pp. 38–39. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/749917/Griffiths_M.D._2011_._Gambling_superstition_and_bingo._i-Gaming_Business_Affiliate_February_March_p._38-39.
  25. Hayes, A. F. (2009). Beyond Baron and Kenny: Statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Communication Monographs, 76(4), 408–420. doi:10.1080/03637750903310360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  27. Hraba, J., Mok, W., & Huff, D. (1990). Lottery play and problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6(4), 355–377. doi:10.1007/bf01014590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Huang, L.-S., & Teng, C.-I. (2009). Development of a Chinese superstitious belief scale. Psychological Reports, 104(3), 807–819. doi:10.2466/pr0.104.3.807-819.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Joukhador, J., Blaszczynski, A., & Maccallum, F. (2004). Superstitious beliefs in gambling among problem and non-problem gamblers: Preliminary data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(2), 171–180. doi:10.1023/B:JOGS.0000022308.27774.2b.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kasikorn Research Center. (2010). Underground lottery, from https://www.kasikornresearch.com/th/K-EconAnalysis/Pages/ViewSummary.aspx?docid=30279.
  31. Kom Chud Luek. (2013). Villagers get numbers from old vase. Retrieved from http://news.myfirstinfo.com/viewnews.asp?newsid=3590301&keyword=%E1%CB%E8%A2%CD%E0%C5%A2%E0%B4%E7%B4%20-excxs:0.
  32. LaPlante, D., Gray, H., Bosworth, L., & Shaffer, H. (2010). Thirty years of lottery public health research: Methodological strategies and trends. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(2), 301–329. doi:10.1007/s10899-010-9185-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Li, H., Mao, L., Zhang, J., Wu, Y., Li, A., & Chen, J. (2012). Dimensions of problem gambling behavior associated with purchasing sports lottery. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28(1), 47–68. doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9243-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Manager Online. (2010). Chumporn gamblers dig tomb for suicide rope to get numbers Retrieved from http://news.myfirstinfo.com/viewnews.asp?newsid=2232244&keyword=%A2%CD%E0%C5%A2%E0%B4%E7%B4%20-excxs:0.
  35. Manager Weekly. (2008). Expert says astrology gives accurate numbers, increases five dailies’ circulation. Retrieved from http://news.myfirstinfo.com/viewnews.asp?newsid=1334416&keyword=%E0%A1%A8%D4%E0%BC%C2%20-excxs:0.
  36. Matute, H. (1995). Human reactions to uncontrollable outcomes: Further evidence for superstitions rather than helplessness. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B: Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 48B(2), 142–157.Google Scholar
  37. National Statistical Office. (2014). Table A: Number and percentage of population by sex, region and area, whole Kingdom, 2005, from http://web.nso.go.th/en/survey/pop_character/population%20characteristics%202005-2006/statistical%20tables%20%20population/ST1D36_wholekingdom.PDF.
  38. Näyhä, S. (2002). Traffic deaths and superstition on Friday the 13th. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(12), 2110–2111. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.12.2110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ohtsuka, K., & Chan, C. C. (2010). Donning red underwear to play mahjong: Superstitious beliefs and problem gambling among Chinese mahjong players in Macau. Gambling Research: Journal of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia), 22(1), 18–33.Google Scholar
  40. Post Today (2010). Asking for numbers from Wat Phai-ngern. Retrieved from http://news.myfirstinfo.com/viewnews.asp?newsid=2490276&keyword=%A2%CD%E0%C5%A2%E0%B4%E7%B4%20-excxs:0.
  41. Thai Rath. (2013). Prime minister’s number; 66 double–up and down, Thai Rath, pp. 1, 11, Bangkok, Thailand (Thai).Google Scholar
  42. Wannathepsakun, N. (2011). Illegal lottery economy: Perspectives on Thai socio-economic changes through gambling business. Bangkok: Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Chulalongkorn University.Google Scholar
  43. Wiseman, R., & Watt, C. (2004). Measuring superstitious belief: Why lucky charms matter. Personality and Individual Differences, 37(8), 1533–1541. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2004.02.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of Consumer Research, 37, 197–206. doi:10.1086/651257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Communication ArtsBangkok UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Graduate SchoolBangkok UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations