Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1545–1560 | Cite as

Nonmonetary Decision-Making Indices Discriminate Between Different Behavioral Components of Gambling

  • Juan F. Navas
  • Ana Torres
  • Raquel Vilar
  • Antonio Verdejo-García
  • Andrés Catena
  • José C. Perales
Original Paper

Abstract

Recent research has proposed that altered reward and punishment sensitivity, heightened impulsivity, and faulty dynamic decision-making are at the core of disordered gambling. However, each of these traits and cognitive aspects dimensionally vary in the normal population, such that the link between individual differences in these dimensions and gambling use can be ultimately informative to explain disordered gambling. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the contribution of such decision-making-related indices to gambling use parameters in a community sample of college students. Assessment included punishment and reward sensitivity (as measured by the shortened Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire), impulsivity (as measured by the UPPS-P model and a motor inhibition Go/No-go task), and dynamic decision-making [as measured by the probabilistic reversal learning task (PRLT)]. A structured interview was conducted to explore quantitative aspects of the participants gambling habits (gambling presence, gambling frequency, and average amount of money spent in gambling per unit of time). Our results showed the existence of a decision-making profile of gambling, as it naturally occurs in college students, in which sensation seeking is directly and specifically related to gambling presence (gambling, or not gambling at all), punishment sensitivity is inversely related to gambling frequency, and inflexibility in the PRLT specifically predicts the losses accrued because of gambling. These results are compatible with the idea that sensation seeking and punishment insensitivity could increase exposure to gambling activities, whereas reversal learning inflexibility, in people who already gamble, could boost the risk to accumulate losses.

Keywords

Gambling Decision-making Impulsivity Reward and punishment sensitivity Reversal learning 

References

  1. Albein-Urios, N., Martinez-González, J. M., Lozano, O., Clark, L., & Verdejo-García, A. (2012). Comparison of impulsivity and working memory in cocaine addiction and pathological gambling: Implications for cocaine-induced neurotoxicity. Drug Alcohol Depence, 126, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aluja, A., & Blanch, A. (2011). Neuropsychological behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral approach system (BAS) assessment: A shortened sensitivity to punishment and sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire Version (SPSRQ–20). Journal of Personality Assessment, 93, 628–636.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Atkinson, J., Sharp, C., Schmitz, J., & Yaroslavsky, I. (2012). Behavioral activation and inhibition, negative affect, and gambling severity in a sample of young adult college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 437–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson, L. A., Norman, C., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). The role of impulsivity, sensation seeking, coping, and year of study in student gambling: A pilot study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10, 461–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathway model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnaire, C., Bungener, C., & Varescon, I. (2006). Pathological gambling and sensation seeking—how do gamblers playing games of chance in cafes differ from those who bet on horses at the racetrack? Addiction Research & Theory, 14, 619–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Campbell-Meiklejohn, D. K., Woolrich, M. W., Passingham, R. E., & Rogers, R. D. (2008). Knowing when to stop: The brain mechanisms of chasing losses. Biological Psychiatry, 63, 293–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cándido, A., Orduña, E., Perales, J. C., Verdejo-García, A., & Billieux, J. (2012). Validation of a short Spanish version of the UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale. Trastornos adictivos, 14, 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corr, P. J. (2004). Reinforcement sensitivity theory and personality. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 317–332.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cyders, M. A., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Clarifying the role of personality dispositions in risk for increased gambling behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 503–508.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. de Ruiter, M. D., Veltman, D. J., Goudriaan, A. E., Oosterlaan, J., Sjoerds, Z., & van den Brink, W. (2009). Response perseveration and ventral prefrontal sensitivity to reward and punishment in problem gamblers and smokers. Neuropsychopharmachology, 34, 1027–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eitle, D., & Taylor, J. (2010). General strain theory, BIS/BAS levels, and gambling behavior. Deviant Behavior, 32, 1–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eysenck, S. B., & Sybil, B. G. (1993). The I7: Development of a measure of impulsivity and its relationship to the superfactors of personality. In W. G. McCown, J. L. Johnson, & M. B. Shure (Eds.), The impulsive client: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 141–149). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fernández-Serrano, M. J., Perales, J. C., Moreno-López, L., Pérez-García, M., & Verdejo-García, A. (2012). Neuropsychological profiling of impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependent individuals. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 219, 673–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fortune, E. E., & Goodie, A. S. (2010). The relationship between pathological gambling and sensation seeking: The role of subscale scores. Journal Gambling Studies, 26, 331–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Goudriaan, A. E., Oosterland, J., de Beurs, E., & van den Brink, W. (2004). Pathological gambling: A comprehensive review of biobehavioral finding. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 123–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Izquierdo, A., & Jentsch, J. D. (2012). Reversal learning as a measure of impulsive and compulsive behavior in addictions. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 219, 607–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. King, S. M., Abrams, K., & Wilkinson, T. (2010). Personality, gender, and family history in the prediction of college gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26, 347–359.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Langewisch, M. W., & Frisch, G. R. (1998). Gambling behavior and pathology in relation to impulsivity, sensation seeking, and risky behavior in male college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers. Psychiatry Research, 144, 17–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Leeman, R. F., & Potenza, M. N. (2012). Similarities and differences between pathological gambling and substance use disorders: A focus on impulsivity. Psychopharmachology, 219, 469–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Linnet, J., Moller, A., Peterson, E., Gjedde, A., & Doudet, D. (2011). Dopamine release in ventral striatum during Iowa Gambling Task performance is associated with increased excitement levels in pathological gambling. Addiction, 106, 383–390.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lueddeke, S. E., & Higham, P. A. (2011). Expertise and gambling: Using type 2 signal detection theory to investigate differences between regular gamblers and nongamblers. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1850–1871.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lynam, D. R., Smith, G. R., Whiteside, S. P., & Cyder, M. A. (2006). The UPPS-P: Assessing five personality pathways to impulsive behavior. (Tech. Rep.). West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University.Google Scholar
  25. Mcbride, J., & Derevensky, J. (2012). Internet gambling and risk-taking among students: An exploratory study. Journal Behavioral Addictions, 1, 50–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McLaren, V. V., Fugelsang, J. A., Harrigan, K. A., & Dixon, M. J. (2011). The personality of pathological gamblers: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31, 1057–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Michalczuk, R., Bowden-Jones, H., Verdejo-García, A., & Clark, L. (2011). Impulsivity and cognitive distortions in pathological gamblers attending the UK National Problem Gambling Clinic: a preliminary report. Psychological Medicine, 41, 2625–2635.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Moreno-López, L., Perales, J. C., Son, D., Albein-Urios, N., Soriano-Mas, C., Martinez-Gonzalez, J. M., et al. (2014). Cocaine use severity and cerebellar gray matter are associated with reversal learning deficits in cocaine-dependent individuals. Addiction Biology. doi:10.1111/adb.12143.
  29. Navas, J. F., Torres, A., Cándido, A., & Perales, J. C. (in press). ¿’Nothing’ or ‘just a bit’? ¿’Much’ or ‘too much’? Impulsivity traits as markers of severity transitions within non-problematic and problematic ranges of alcohol and Internet use. Adicciones. Google Scholar
  30. O’Connor, R. M., Stewart, S. H., & Watt, M. C. (2009). Distinguishing BAS risk for university students’ drinking, smoking, and gambling behaviors. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 514–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Perales, J. C., Verdejo-García, A., Moya, M., Lozano, O., & Perez-García, M. (2009). Bright and dark sides of impulsivity: Performance of women with high and low trait impulsivity on neuropsychological tasks. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 31, 927–944.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Plutchik, R., & Van Praag, H. (1989). The measurement of suicidality, aggressivity and impulsivity. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 13, S23–S34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Power, Y., Goodyear, B., & Crockford, D. (2011). Neural correlates of pathological gamblers preference for immediate rewards during the Iowa gambling task: An fMRI study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 623–636.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ross, D., Sharp, C., Vuchinich, R., & Spurrett, D. (2008). Midbrain mutiny: The picoeconomics and neuroeconomics of disordered gambling. Economic theory and cognitive science. Cambridge, MA: A Bradford Book, The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  35. Scheres, A., & Sanfey, A. G. (2006). Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 2, 35.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Spinella, M. (2004). Neurobehavioral correlates of impulsivity: Evidence of prefrontal involvement. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114, 95–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Stanford, M. S., Mathias, C. W., Dougherty, D. M., Lake, S. L., Anderson, N. E., & Patton, J. H. (2009). Fifty years of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale: An update and review. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stanislaw, H., & Todorov, N. (1999). Calculation of signal detection theory measures. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 31, 137–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swainson, R., Rogers, R. D., Sahakian, B. J., Summers, B. A., Polkey, C. E., & Robbins, T. W. (2000). Probabilistic learning and reversal deficits in patients with Parkinson’s disease or frontal or temporal lobe lesions: Possible adverse effects of dopaminergic medication. Neuropsychologia, 38, 596–612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sztainert, T., Wohl, M. J., McManus, J. F., & Stead, J. D. (in press). On being attracted to the possibility of a win: Reward sensitivity (via gambling motives) undermines treatment seeking among pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies. doi:10.1007/s10899-013-9394-5.
  41. Torres, A., Catena, A., Cándido, A., Maldonado, A., Megías, A., & Perales, J. C. (2013a). Cocaine dependent individuals and gamblers present different associative learning anomalies in feedback-driven decision making: A behavioral and ERP study. Frontiers Psychology, 4, 122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Torres, A., Catena, A., Megías, A., Maldonado, A., Cándido, A., Verdejo-García, A., et al. (2013b). Emotional and non-emotional pathways to impulsive behavior and addiction. Frontiers Human Neuroscience, 7, 43.Google Scholar
  43. Van Holst, R. J., Van den Brink, W., Veltman, D. J., & Goudriaan, A. E. (2010). Why gamblers fail to win: A review of cognitive and neuroimaging findings in pathological gambling. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 87–107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Verdejo-García, A., Lawrence, A. J., & Clark, L. (2008). Impulsivity as a vulnerability marker for substance-use disorders: Review of findings from high-risk research, problem gamblers and genetic association studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 32, 777–810.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Verdejo-García, A., López-Torrecillas, F., Aguilar de Arcos, F., & Pérez-García, M. (2005). Differential effects of MDMA, cocaine, and cannabis use severity on distinctive components of the executive functions in polysubstance users, a multiple regression analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 30, 89–101.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Verdejo-García, A., Perales, J. C., & Pérez-García, M. (2007). Cognitive impulsivity in cocaine and heroin polysubstance abusers. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 950–966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Verdejo-García, A., Sánchez-Fernández, M. M., Alonso-Maroto, L. M., Fernández-Calderón, F., Perales, J. C., Lozano, Ó., et al. (2010). Impulsivity and executive functions in polysubstance-using rave attenders. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 210(3), 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wulfert, E., Roland, B. D., Hartley, J., Wang, N., & Franco, C. (2005). Heart rate arousal and excitement in gambling: Winners versus losers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 311–316.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan F. Navas
    • 1
  • Ana Torres
    • 1
  • Raquel Vilar
    • 2
  • Antonio Verdejo-García
    • 2
    • 3
  • Andrés Catena
    • 1
  • José C. Perales
    • 1
  1. 1.Experimental Psychology Department; Mind, Brain, and Behavior Research CenterUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  2. 2.Personality, Assessment, and Psychological Treatment DepartmentUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  3. 3.Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations