Decoding Problem Gamblers’ Signals: A Decision Model for Casino Enterprises
- 241 Downloads
The aim of the present study is to offer a validated decision model for casino enterprises. The model enables those users to perform early detection of problem gamblers and fulfill their ethical duty of social cost minimization. To this end, the interpretation of casino customers’ nonverbal communication is understood as a signal-processing problem. Indicators of problem gambling recommended by Delfabbro et al. (Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: final report, 2007) are combined with Viterbi algorithm into an interdisciplinary model that helps decoding signals emitted by casino customers. Model output consists of a historical path of mental states and cumulated social costs associated with a particular client. Groups of problem and non-problem gamblers were simulated to investigate the model’s diagnostic capability and its cost minimization ability. Each group consisted of 26 subjects and was subsequently enlarged to 100 subjects. In approximately 95 % of the cases, mental states were correctly decoded for problem gamblers. Statistical analysis using planned contrasts revealed that the model is relatively robust to the suppression of signals performed by casino clientele facing gambling problems as well as to misjudgments made by staff regarding the clients’ mental states. Only if the last mentioned source of error occurs in a very pronounced manner, i.e. judgment is extremely faulty, cumulated social costs might be distorted.
KeywordsProblem gambling Business ethics Viterbi algorithm Decoding Model error Model validation Decision model
JEL ClassificationD80 M140 I120
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Anderson, B. (2001). Forgetting properties for hidden Markov models. In D. Cochran, B. Moran, & L. White (Eds.), Defence applications of signal processing: Proceedings of the US/Australia joint workshop on defence applications of signal processing (pp. 26–39). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Australasian Gaming Council (AGC). (2011/2012). A database on Australia’s gambling industry 2011/12. https://www.austgamingcouncil.org.au/agc-database. Accessed September 2, 2013.
- Becker, T. (2011). Soziale Kosten des Glücksspiels in Deutschland. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Bondolfi, G., Osiek, C., & Ferrero, F. (2002). Pathological gambling: An increasing and underestimated disorder. Schweizer Archiv für Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 153(3), 116–122.Google Scholar
- Chamberlain, L. (2004). Understanding and diagnosing compulsive gambling. In Coombs, R. (Ed): Handbook of addictive disorders—A practical guide to diagnosis and treatment (pp. 129–160). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Cotton, R. (2013). Learning R. Beijing: O’Reilly.Google Scholar
- de la Pena, V., Rivera, M., & Ruiz-Mata, J. (2006/2007). Quality control of risk measures: backtesting VAR models. Journal of Risk, 9(2), 39–54.Google Scholar
- Delfabbro, P., Osborn, A., Nevile, M., Skelt, L., & McMillen, J. (2007). Identifying problem gamblers in gambling venues: Final report. Report prepared for gambling research Australia.Google Scholar
- Devlin, J., Kamali, M., Subramanian, K., Prasad, R., & Natarajan, P. (2012). Statistical machine translation as a language model for handwriting recognition. In Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro: 2012 International conference on frontiers in handwriting recognition (pp. 291–296). Piscataway, NJ: IEEE.Google Scholar
- Durbin, R., Eddy, S., Krogh, A., & Mitchison, G. (2002). Biological sequence analysis: Probabilistic models of proteins and nucleic acids. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Eid, M., Gollwitzer, M., & Schmitt, M. (2010). Statistik und Forschungsmethoden. Weinheim: Beltz.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Submitted to the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Ottawa, Ontario: CCSA.Google Scholar
- First Amendment to the State Treaty on Gambling (2012). Published in Gesetz- und Verordnungsblatt für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen – No. 29, November 22, 2012, pp. 534–544. https://recht.nrw.de/lmi/owa/br_vbl_show_pdf?p_id=18700. Accessed 21 Aug 2013.
- First Amendment to the State Treaty on Gambling—North Rhine-Westphalia (2012). Published in Gesetz- und Verordnungsblatt für das Land Nordrhein-Westfalen – No. 29, November 22, 2012, pp. 523–534. https://recht.nrw.de/lmi/owa/br_vbl_detail_text?anw_nr=6&vd_id=13558&ver=8&val=13558&sg=0&menu=1&vd_back=N.. Accessed 10 June 2014.
- Häfeli, J., & Schneider, C. (2005). Identifikation von Problemspielern im Kasino – Ein Screeninginstrument (ID-PS). Luzern.Google Scholar
- Herriff, J. (2009). Gambling: The hidden addiction. Michigan Bar Journal, 88(5), 54–56.Google Scholar
- Independent Gambling Authority of South Australia (2013). South Australian gambling codes of practice prescription notice. http://www.iga.sa.gov.au/pdf/GR-2013-07-dist.pdf. Accessed 21 April 2014.
- Jia, Z., Wang, Y., Hu, Y., McLaren, C., Yu, Y., Ye, K., et al. (2013). A sample selection strategy to boost the statistical power of signature detection in cancer expression profile studies. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 13(2), 203–211.Google Scholar
- Jollimore, T. (2010). Impartiality, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy/Winter 2010 Edition. http://stanford.library.usyd.edu.au/entries/impartiality/. Accessed May 10, 2014.
- Jurafsky, D., & Martin, J. (2009). Speech and language processing: An introduction to natural language processing, computational linguistics, and speech recognition (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Kleiman, M. A. R. (2004). Costs and benefits of immunotherapies or depot medications for the treatment of drug abuse. In National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Immunotherapies and Sustained-Release Formulations for Treating Drug Addiction; Harwood, H. J. & Myers, T. G. (Eds.), New treatments for addiction: Behavioral, ethical, legal, and social questions (pp. 213–240). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
- Lee, C.-K., Song, H.-J., Lee, H.-M., Lee, S., & Bernhard, B. (2013). The impact of CSR on casino employees’ organizational trust, job satisfaction, and customer orientation: An empirical examination of responsible gambling strategies. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, 406–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marshall, K., & Wynne, H. (2003). Fighting the odds. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 4(12), 5–13.Google Scholar
- McCarl, B. A. (1984). Model validation: An overview with some emphasis on risk models. Review of Marketing and Agricultural Economics, 52(3), 153–173.Google Scholar
- Meyer, G., & Bachmann, M. (2011). Spielsucht: Ursachen, Therapie und Prävention von glücksspielbezogenem Suchtverhalten (3rd edn). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Neal, P., Delfabbro, P., & O’Neil, M. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: Towards a national definition. Report commissioned by gambling research Australia for the Ministerial Council on Problem Gambling. Melbourne: Victorian Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Petry, N., Blanco, C., Auriacombe, M., Borges, G., Bucholz, K., Crowley, T. J., et al. (2014). An overview of and rationale for changes proposed for pathological gambling in DSM-5. Journal of Gambling Studies 30(2), 493–502.Google Scholar
- Phillips, D. (2005). Gambling: The hidden addiction. Behavioral Health Management, 25(5), 32–37.Google Scholar
- Productivity Commission. (2010). Gambling, report no. 50. Canberra.Google Scholar
- Schellinck, T., & Schrans, T. (2007). Assessment of the behavioral impact of responsible gaming device (RGD) features: Analysis of Nova Scotia player-card data: Windsor Trial: Final report.Google Scholar
- Schwer, K., Thompson, W., & Nakamuro, D. (2003). Beyond the limits of recreation: Social costs of gambling in Southern Nevada. A paper presented to annual meeting of the far west and American popular culture association, Las Vegas.Google Scholar
- Scull, S., Butler, D., & Mutzelberg, M. (2004). Problem gambling in non-English speaking background communities in Queensland: A pilot study, University of Queensland. http://www.uq.edu.au/boilerhouse/docs/Scull-problem-gambling.pdf. Accessed 2 Oct 2013.
- Stoll, C., Kapfhammer, H. P., Rothenhäusler, H. B., Haller, M., Briegel, J., Schmidt, M., et al. (1999). Sensitivity and specificity of a screening test to document traumatic experiences and to diagnose post-traumatic stress disorder in ARDS patients after intensive care treatment. Intensive Care Medicine, 25(7), 697–704.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Toneatto, T., & Millar, G. (2004). Assessing and treating problem gambling: empirical status and promising trends. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 517–525.Google Scholar
- Victorian Responsible Gambling Foundation. (2012). The Victorian gambling study—A longitudinal study of gambling and public health: Wave three findings. Melbourne: Author.Google Scholar
- Walker, D. M. (2011). Overview of the economic and social impacts of gambling in the United States. http://walkerd.people.cofc.edu/pubs/2012/OxfordCh_dist.pdf. Accessed June 26, 2013.
- Wynne, H. (2002). Gambling and problem gambling in Saskatchewan. Final report, Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse. Ottawa, Ontario. http://www.jogoremoto.pt/docs/extra/UdKtEG.pdf. Accessed April 25, 2014.