First Evidence of Comorbidity of Problem Gambling and Other Psychiatric Problems in a Representative Urban Sample of South Africa
- 259 Downloads
We investigate the extent to which problem gambling in a recent South African sample, as measured by the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), is comorbid with depression, anxiety and substance abuse. Data are from the 2010 South African National Urban Prevalence Study of Gambling Behavior. A representative sample of the urban adult population in South Africa (N = 3,000). Responses to the 9-item PGSI and ratings on the Beck Depression Index, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the World Health Organization Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Tool (WHO ASSIST). Cross tabulations and Chi square analyses along with logistic regression analyses with and without controls for socio-demographic and/or socio-economic variables were used to identify comorbidities. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, alcohol and substance use were clearly higher among the sample at risk for problem gambling. Black African racial status and living in areas characterized by migrant mining workers was associated with increased risk of problem gambling and comorbidities. There is strong evidence that findings of comorbidities between pathological gambling and depression, anxiety and substance abuse in developed countries generalize to the developing country of South Africa. Historical context, however, gives those comorbidities a unique demographic distribution.
KeywordsPathological gambling Comorbidity Depression Anxiety Substance abuse
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual for mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bland, R. C., Newman, S. C., Orn, H., & Stebelsky, G. (1993). Epidemiology of pathological gambling in Edmonton. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 38, 108–112.Google Scholar
- Collins, P., & Barr, G. (2003). Gaming and problem gambling in South Africa. Retrieved from The National Responsible Gambling Programme website: http://www.responsiblegambling.co.za/media/user/documents/Introduction%20Pg%202%20-%208.pdf.
- Collins, P., & Barr, G. (2006). Gaming and problem gambling in South Africa. Retrieved from The National Responsible Gambling Programme website: http://www.responsiblegambling.co.za/media/user/documents/NRGP%20Prevalence%20Study%202006.pdf.
- Dellis, A., Sharp, C., Hofmeyr, A., Ross, D., Rousseau, J., Spurrett, D et al. (2014). Criterion-related and construct validity of the Problem Gambling Severity Index in a sample of South African gamblers. South African Journal of Psychology. doi: 10.1177/0081246314522367.
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Gerstein, D., Hoffman, J., Larison, C., Engelman, L., Murphy, S., Palmer, A., et al. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Report to the national gambling impact study commission. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Heyman, G. (2009). Addiction: A disorder of choice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Dohrenwend, B. P., Link, B. G., & Brook, J. S. (1999). A longitudinal investigation of social causation and social selection processes involved in the association between socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 490–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kincaid, H., Daniels, E., Dellis, A., Hofmeyr, A., Rousseau, J., Sharp, C. et al. (2013). A taxometric analysis of the performance of the Problem Gambling Severity Index in a South African national urban prevalence sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, 29(3), 377–392.Google Scholar
- Perez, S., & Junod, A. (1998). Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa. Médecine tropicale: Revue du Corps de santé colonial, 58(2), 168–176.Google Scholar
- Ross, D., Barr, G., Collins, P., Dellis, A., Hofmeyr, A., Kincaid, H. et al. (2010). Summary of basic data on the national urban prevalence study of gambling behaviour. Retrieved from The National Responsible Gambling Programme website: http://www.responsiblegambling.co.za/media/user/documents/Summary%20of%20basic%20data%20on%20from%20the%20National%20Urban%20Prevalence%20Study%20of%20Gambling%20Behaviour%20-%20March%202010.pdf.
- Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., LaPlante, D. A., Nelson, S. E., & Stanton, M. V. (2004a). The road less traveled: Moving from distribution to determinants in the study of gambling epidemiology. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49(8), 504–516.Google Scholar
- Statistics South Africa. (2013). Quarterly labour force survey: Quarter 4. Retrieved from the Statistics South Africa website: http://beta2.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0211/P02114thQuarter2013.pdf.
- Steele, G. I., & Edwards, D. J. A. (2008a). Development and validation of the Xhosa translations of the Beck Inventories: 1. Challenges of the translation process. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 18(2), 207–216.Google Scholar
- Steele, G. I., & Edwards, D. J. A. (2008b). Development and validation of the Xhosa translations of the Beck Inventories: 2. Item analysis, internal consistency and factor analysis. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 18(2), 217–226.Google Scholar
- Swartz, L. (1998). Culture and mental health: A Southern African view. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Watters, E. (2010). Crazy like us: The globalization of the American psyche. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- World Bank. (2014a). The World Bank: GDP per capita. Retrieved from the World Bank Website: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.PCAP.CD.
- World Bank. (2014b). The World Bank: Poverty and equity: South Africa. Retrieved from the World Bank Website: http://povertydata.worldbank.org/poverty/country/ZAF.