An Examination of a Proposed DSM-IV Pathological Gambling Hierarchy in a Treatment Seeking Population: Similarities with Substance Dependence and Evidence for Three Classification Systems
- 331 Downloads
Toce-Gerstein et al. (Addiction 98:1661–1672, 2003) investigated the distribution of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) pathological gambling criteria endorsement in a U.S. community sample for those people endorsing a least one of the DSM-IV criteria (n = 399). They proposed a hierarchy of gambling disorders where endorsement of 1–2 criteria were deemed ‘At-Risk’, 3–4 ‘Problem gamblers’, 5–7 ‘Low Pathological’, and 8–10 ‘High Pathological’ gamblers. This article examines these claims in a larger Australian treatment seeking population. Data from 4,349 clients attending specialist problem gambling services were assessed for meeting the ten DSM-IV pathological gambling criteria. Results found higher overall criteria endorsement frequencies, three components, a direct relationship between criteria endorsement and gambling severity, clustering of criteria similar to the Toce-Gerstein et al. taxonomy, high accuracy scores for numerical and criteria specific taxonomies, and also high accuracy scores for dichotomous pathological gambling diagnoses. These results suggest significant complexities in the frequencies of criteria reports and relationships between criteria.
KeywordsDSM-IV DSM-V Pathological gambling Disordered gambling Substance related and addictive disorders Behavioral addiction Classification systems Taxonomy Severity
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th text revision ed.). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. J. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., Silvain, C., Boutin, C., & Doucet, C. (1998). Understanding and treating the pathological gambler. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lesieur, H. R. (2006). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A rebuttal to critics. Journal of Gambling Issues, 17, 1–16.Google Scholar
- McCormick, J. E. (2009). Individual vulnerability and dissociative-like experiences in regular and problem gamblers. (Master of Psychology (Clinical) and Doctor of Philosophy), University of Adelaide, Adelaide.Google Scholar
- Neal, P., Delfrabbro, P., & O’Neil, M. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: Towards a national definition. Melbourne: Office of Gaming and Racing on behalf of Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
- Productivity Commission. (2010). Gambling. Canberra: Productivity Commission.Google Scholar
- Walker, M., & Shannon, K. (2006). Gender differences in meeting the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Gambling Research, 18, 33–41.Google Scholar
- Winter, I. (2000). Towards a theorised understanding of family life and social capital (Vol. 21). Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.Google Scholar