Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 775–786 | Cite as

Reliability and Validity of Three Instruments (DSM-IV, CPGI, and PPGM) in the Assessment of Problem Gambling in South Korea

  • Ki-Joon Back
  • Robert J. Williams
  • Choong-Ki Lee
Original Paper


Most research on the assessment, epidemiology, and treatment of problem gambling has occurred in Western jurisdictions. This potentially limits the cross-cultural validity of problem gambling assessment instruments as well as etiological models of problem gambling. The primary objective of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of three problem gambling assessment instruments within a South Korean context. A total of 4,330 South Korean adults participated in a comprehensive assessment of their gambling behavior that included the administration of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling (NODS), the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI), and the Problem and Pathological Gambling Measure (PPGM). Cronbach alpha showed that all three instruments had good internal consistency. Concurrent validity was established by the significant associations observed between scores on the instruments and measures of gambling involvement (number of gambling formats engaged in; frequency of gambling; and gambling expenditure). Most importantly, kappa statistics showed that all instruments have satisfactory classification accuracy against clinical assessment of problem gambling conducted by South Korean clinicians (NODS κ = .66; PPGM κ = .62; CPGI κ = .51). These results confirm that Western-derived operationalizations of problem gambling have applicability in a South Korean setting.


Validity Reliability Assessment Korea Problem gambling 



The authors would like to thank the Alberta Gambling Research Institute for their financial support of this project, the staff at Embrain for their skillful administration of the surveys, and Drs. Lee and Roh for conducting the clinical assessments.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ki-Joon Back
    • 1
  • Robert J. Williams
    • 2
  • Choong-Ki Lee
    • 3
  1. 1.C. N. Hilton CollegeUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Health SciencesUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  3. 3.College of Hotel and Tourism ManagementKyung Hee UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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