Interactions Between Risk and Protective Factors on Problem Gambling in Asia
- 473 Downloads
This study examined the relationships between risk (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and protective factors (i.e., life satisfaction, resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) and problem gambling among 310 Singaporeans aged between 18 and 73 years. Data on demographics, risk and protective factors, and gambling behavior were collected through electronic and paper surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression was employed to assess the contributions of the risk and protective factors in predicting problem gambling. Three risk factors (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and two protective factors (i.e., resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) were found to significantly and uniquely predict problem gambling. Furthermore, the risk factors significantly interacted with the protective factors to moderate gambling severity. Gambling refusal self-efficacy shows significant protective effects against problem gambling, while the effects of resilience on gambling vary across settings. Both factors need to be taken into account in the understanding of problem gambling.
KeywordsGambling Risk factors Protective factors Moderators
This study started when Dr. Oei was a visiting professor at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Mr. Goh was completing his thesis for the Master of Clinical Psychology degree. Dr. Oei now is an Emeritus Professor of UQ and a part-time visiting Professor at James Cook University, Singapore campus, and Mr Goh is now at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore. We would like to thank Ms. WW Lai for her help. We would like to thank NUS and UQ for their support.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Cunningham-Williams, R. M., Grucza, R. A., Cottler, L. B., Womack, S. B., Books, S. J., Przybeck, T. R., et al. (2005). Prevalence and predictors of pathological gambling: results from the St. Louis personality, health and lifestyle (SLPHL) study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 39, 377–390.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Derevenksy, J., & Gupta, R. (2004). Adolescents with gambling problems: a review of our current knowledgeg. E-Gambling The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, 10, 119–140.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., Wyne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, February.Google Scholar
- Hodge, D. R., Andereck, K., & Montoya, H. (2007). The protective influence of spiritual-religious lifestyle profiles on tobacco use, alcohol use, and gambling. Social Work Research, 31, 2007.Google Scholar
- Jacques, C., Ladouceur, R., & Ferland, F. (2000). Impact of availability on gambling: A longitudinal study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 810–815.Google Scholar
- Lee, M. (2005). The role of local government in gambling expansion in British Columbia (Doctoral dissertation), Department of Political Science-Simon Fraser University.Google Scholar
- Lim, J., Ong, C. (2012). Online gambling growing on the quiet: The Straits Times. http://app.msf.gov.sg/pressRoom.aspx?tid=67&title=Gambling/Problem%20Gambling.
- Ministry of Community Youth and Sports (MCYS). (2008). Report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents. Ministry of Community, Youth and Sport. www.mcys.gov.sg.
- Ministry of Community, Youth and Sports (MCYS). (2011). Report of survey on participation in gambling activities among Singapore residents. Ministry of Community, Youth and Sport. www.mcys.gov.sg.
- Oei, T. P. S., & Raylu, N. (2007). Gambling behaviours and motivations towards gambling among the Chinese. In T. P. Oei & N. Raylu (Eds.), Gambling and problem gambling among the Chinese (pp. 62–83). Brisbane: The University of Queensland.Google Scholar
- Oei, T. P. S., Sawang, S., Goh, Y. W., Mukhtar, F. (2013) Using the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) across culture. International Journal of Psychology, (in press).Google Scholar
- Ozorio, B., & Fong, D. K. C. (2004). Chinese casino gambling behaviors: Risk taking in casinos vs. investments. UNLV Gaming Research and Review Journal, 8, 27–38.Google Scholar
- Sinniah, A., Maniam, T., Karuthan, C., Hatta, S., Jaafar, N., Oei, T. P. S. (2013). Psychometric properties and validation of the Satisfaction With Life Scale in psychiatric and medical outpatients in Malaysia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, (in press).Google Scholar
- Smith, G. J., Wynne, H. (2002). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta: Using the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI). Alberta Gaming Research Institute. www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca.
- Springer, J. F., & Phillips, J. L. (1992). Extended national youth sports program 1991–1992 evaluation II: Individual protective factors index (IPFI) and risk assessment study. Folsom, CA: EMT Associates.Google Scholar
- SPSS Inc. (1998). SPSS Base 8.0 for Windows User’s Guide. SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
- Teo, P., Mythily, S., Anantha, S., & Winslow, M. (2007). Demographic and clinical features of 150 pathological gamblers referred to a community addictions programme. Annals Academy of Medicine Singapore, 36, 165–168.Google Scholar
- Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority. (2000). The impact of gaming on specific cultural groups report. Melbourne: Victoria.Google Scholar
- Wagnild, G. M., & Collins, J. A. (2009). Assessing Resilience. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 47, 28–33.Google Scholar
- Wiebe, J., Single, E., & Falkowski-Ham, A. (2001). Measuring gambling and problem gambling on Ontario. Ontario, Canada: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse and Responsible Gambling Council.Google Scholar
- Zucker, R. A., Wong, M. M., Puttler, L. I., & Fitzgerald, H. E. (2003). Resilience and vulnerability among sons of alcoholics: Relationship to development outcomes between early childhood and adolescence. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 76–103). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar