Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 557–572 | Cite as

Interactions Between Risk and Protective Factors on Problem Gambling in Asia

  • Tian P. S. Oei
  • Zhengqin Goh
Original Paper


This study examined the relationships between risk (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and protective factors (i.e., life satisfaction, resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) and problem gambling among 310 Singaporeans aged between 18 and 73 years. Data on demographics, risk and protective factors, and gambling behavior were collected through electronic and paper surveys. Hierarchical multiple regression was employed to assess the contributions of the risk and protective factors in predicting problem gambling. Three risk factors (i.e., gambling cognitions, gambling urges, psychological distress) and two protective factors (i.e., resilience, gambling refusal self-efficacy) were found to significantly and uniquely predict problem gambling. Furthermore, the risk factors significantly interacted with the protective factors to moderate gambling severity. Gambling refusal self-efficacy shows significant protective effects against problem gambling, while the effects of resilience on gambling vary across settings. Both factors need to be taken into account in the understanding of problem gambling.


Gambling Risk factors Protective factors Moderators 



This study started when Dr. Oei was a visiting professor at the National University of Singapore (NUS) and Mr. Goh was completing his thesis for the Master of Clinical Psychology degree. Dr. Oei now is an Emeritus Professor of UQ and a part-time visiting Professor at James Cook University, Singapore campus, and Mr Goh is now at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore. We would like to thank Ms. WW Lai for her help. We would like to thank NUS and UQ for their support.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.James Cook UniversitySingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Institute of Mental HealthSingaporeSingapore

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