Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 243–256 | Cite as

Validation of the Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Chinese Undergraduate Students

  • Mark H. C. Lai
  • Anise M. S. Wu
  • Kowk Kit Tong
Original Paper


Although research on self-efficacy in the gambling literature took place more than 25 years ago, only in the recent decade did researchers attempt to develop valid and reliable measures of gambling-related self-efficacy. Recently Casey et al. (J Gambl Stud 24:229–246, 2008) developed the Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (GRSEQ) in an Australian sample, which is a valuable tool for gambling research. The first objective of this study is to validate the measure in a new sample. Given that previous research on Chinese’s gamblers’ self-efficacy is lacking, and that related research often used ad-hoc measures of the construct, a second objective of this study is to evaluate whether the GRSEQ is suitable for Chinese people. A sample of 427 university students (56.4 % females, 50.7 % gamblers) answered a questionnaire with measures including the GRSEQ, subjective norms, intentions toward gambling, general self-efficacy, impulsiveness, and pathological gambling symptoms. Evidence was found for the four-factor structure, internal consistency, criterion-related validity, and discriminant validity of the Chinese version of the GRSEQ among this young Chinese group.


Gambling Self-efficacy Psychometric Validation Chinese Undergraduate 



This research project was supported by the University of Macau RC Research Grant MYRG040(Y1-L1)-FSH11-TKK.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark H. C. Lai
    • 1
  • Anise M. S. Wu
    • 2
  • Kowk Kit Tong
    • 2
  1. 1.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences (FSS)University of MacauTaipaMacao

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