Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 225–242 | Cite as

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Italian Version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-I)

  • Paolo Iliceto
  • Emanuele Fino
  • Camillo Cammarota
  • Eleni Giovani
  • Francesca Petrucci
  • Marta Desimoni
  • Ugo Sabatello
  • Gabriella Candilera
  • Tian Po Oei
Original Paper


The past decade has witnessed an expanded accessibility and popularity of gambling worldwide, and in Italy the phenomenon significantly increased. Nevertheless, little is known about the role of gambling cognitions among Italian individuals, and few scales assessing problem gambling have been validated. The purpose of the present study was to examine and validate the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale-Italian version (GRCS-I), based on the 23-item Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS). Two-tailed t tests, ANOVA, MANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple regression analyses were used for continuous variables, while χ2 tests with Yates’s correction for categorical variables. Cronbach’s α was utilized to determine the internal consistency, and logistic regression analysis and the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine discriminant validity. Principal axis factoring with Oblimin rotation was applied, and then confirmatory factor analysis was used to cross-validate the factor structures. We extracted a five-factor solution that accounted for 60 % of variance. All 23 items had communalities and factor loadings were satisfactory, and the factor structures were similar to the original version of the measure. The Cronbach’s α coefficients were adequate, and concurrent and discriminant validities of the GRCS were also confirmed. GRCS-I presented good psychometric properties and it demonstrated good validity and reliability, providing a valid and suitable tool for the assessment of gambling related cognitions among Italian individuals.


Gambling Gambling Related Cognitions Scale Italy 



This work was completed with the assistance of S&P Statistics and Psychometrics Ltd, Rome, Italy.

Conflict of interest

The authors report no conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible for the content and writing of the paper.

Supplementary material

10899_2013_9405_MOESM1_ESM.doc (70 kb)
Supplementary material (DOC 70 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paolo Iliceto
    • 1
  • Emanuele Fino
    • 2
  • Camillo Cammarota
    • 3
  • Eleni Giovani
    • 4
  • Francesca Petrucci
    • 4
  • Marta Desimoni
    • 2
  • Ugo Sabatello
    • 5
  • Gabriella Candilera
    • 4
  • Tian Po Oei
    • 6
  1. 1.S&P Statistics and Psychometrics LtdRomeItaly
  2. 2.Department of Developmental and Social PsychologySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of MathematicsSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  4. 4.Private PracticeRomeItaly
  5. 5.Department of Pediatrics and Child NeuropsychiatrySapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  6. 6.School of PsychologyUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia

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