Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 161–171 | Cite as

College Student Beliefs About Wagering: An Evaluation of the Adolescent Gambling Expectancies Survey

  • Meredith K. Ginley
  • James P. Whelan
  • George E. Relyea
  • Jessica L. Simmons
  • Andrew W. Meyers
  • Godfrey D. Pearlson
Original Paper


Expectancy theory posits that decisions to engage in a given behavior are closely tied to expectations of the outcome of that behavior. Gambling outcome expectancies have predicted adolescent gambling and gambling problems. When high school students’ outcome expectancies were measured by Wickwire et al. (Psychol Addict Behav 24(1):75–88 2010), the Adolescent Gambling Expectancy Survey (AGES) revealed five categories of expectancies that were each predictive of gambling frequency and pathology. The present study aimed to explore if the AGES could be successfully replicated with college students. When administered to a diverse college student population, factor analyses identified five factors similar to those found in the high school sample. Several factors of the AGES were also found to predict gambling frequency and gambling problems for college students. Gambling frequency and gambling activity preference were also addressed.


College student gambling Outcome expectancies Adolescent Gambling Expectancies Survey (AGES) 



This research was supported in part by grants from the National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students: BARCS: RO1 AA016599 and RC1 AA019036 to Dr. Godfrey Pearlson). The National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism did not have a role in the design of the study, data analysis, writing, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. We would like to thank R. Rosen, R. E. Jiantonio-Kelly, and J. Sistante from Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital; S.A. Raskin from Trinity College Department of Psychology; H. Tennen from University of Connecticut Health Center; and C.S. Austad, R.M. Wood, and C.R. Fallahi from the Central Connecticut State University Department of Psychology for their assistance with portions of the data collection process. We would also like to thank the members of The Institute for Gambling Education and Research Lab (T.I.G.E.R.) for their assistance with review of manuscript drafts.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Meredith K. Ginley
    • 1
  • James P. Whelan
    • 1
  • George E. Relyea
    • 2
  • Jessica L. Simmons
    • 1
  • Andrew W. Meyers
    • 1
  • Godfrey D. Pearlson
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  2. 2.School of Public HealthUniversity of MemphisMemphisUSA
  3. 3.Olin Neuropsychiatry Research CenterHartford HospitalHartfordUSA
  4. 4.Departments of Psychiatry and NeurobiologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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