College Student Beliefs About Wagering: An Evaluation of the Adolescent Gambling Expectancies Survey
- 356 Downloads
Expectancy theory posits that decisions to engage in a given behavior are closely tied to expectations of the outcome of that behavior. Gambling outcome expectancies have predicted adolescent gambling and gambling problems. When high school students’ outcome expectancies were measured by Wickwire et al. (Psychol Addict Behav 24(1):75–88 2010), the Adolescent Gambling Expectancy Survey (AGES) revealed five categories of expectancies that were each predictive of gambling frequency and pathology. The present study aimed to explore if the AGES could be successfully replicated with college students. When administered to a diverse college student population, factor analyses identified five factors similar to those found in the high school sample. Several factors of the AGES were also found to predict gambling frequency and gambling problems for college students. Gambling frequency and gambling activity preference were also addressed.
KeywordsCollege student gambling Outcome expectancies Adolescent Gambling Expectancies Survey (AGES)
This research was supported in part by grants from the National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (Brain and Alcohol Research in College Students: BARCS: RO1 AA016599 and RC1 AA019036 to Dr. Godfrey Pearlson). The National Institution on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism did not have a role in the design of the study, data analysis, writing, or decision to submit the manuscript for publication. We would like to thank R. Rosen, R. E. Jiantonio-Kelly, and J. Sistante from Olin Neuropsychiatry Research Center, Hartford Hospital; S.A. Raskin from Trinity College Department of Psychology; H. Tennen from University of Connecticut Health Center; and C.S. Austad, R.M. Wood, and C.R. Fallahi from the Central Connecticut State University Department of Psychology for their assistance with portions of the data collection process. We would also like to thank the members of The Institute for Gambling Education and Research Lab (T.I.G.E.R.) for their assistance with review of manuscript drafts.
- Abar, C., & Turrisi, R. (2008). How important are parents during the college years? A longitudinal perspective of indirect influences parents yield on their college teens’ alcohol use. Addictive Behaviors, 33(10), 1360–1368. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.06.010.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Arria, A. M., Kuhn, V., Caldeira, K. M., O’Grady, K. E., Vincent, K. B., & Wish, E. D. (2008). High school drinking mediates the relationship between parental monitoring and college drinking: A longitudinal analysis. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 3. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-3-6.
- Browne, M. W. (1982). Covariance structures. In D. M. Hawkins (Ed.), Topics in applied multivariate analysis. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Burgette, J., King, M., Lee, C., & Park, H. (2011). Tennessee dropout policy scan. Retrieved from University of Memphis, Center for Research in Education Policy website: http://www.tn.gov/education/safe_schls/dropout/doc/TennesseeDropoutPolicyScan.pdf.
- Businelle, M. S., Kendzor, D. E., Rash, C. J., Patterson, S. M., & Copeland, A. L. (2009). The development and validation of the Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) Beliefs Questionnaire (MDMA-BQ) in college students. Addiction Research & Theory, 17(4), 432–445. doi: 10.1080/16066350801902442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Cattell, R. B., & Muerle, J. L. (1960). The ‘maxplane’ program for factor rotation to oblique simple structure. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 20569-590. doi: 10.1177/001316446002000314.
- Dager, A. D., Anderson, B. M., Stevens, M. C., Pulido, C., Rosen, R., Jiantonio-Kelly, R. E., & Pearlson, G. D. (2012). Influence of alcohol use and family history of alcoholism on neural response to alcohol cues in college drinkers. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01879.x.
- Demmel, R., & Hagen, J. (2003). The Comprehensive Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire: II. Prediction of alcohol use and clinical utility. Sucht: Zeitschrift Für Wissenschaft Und Praxis, 49(5), 300–305.Google Scholar
- Fischer, S., & Smith, G. T. (2008). Binge eating, problem drinking, and pathological gambling: Linking behavior to shared traits and social learning. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(4), 789–800.Google Scholar
- Gillespie, M. M., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2007a). I. Adolescent problem gambling: Developing a gambling expectancy instrument. Journal of Gambling Issues, 1951-68. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2007.19.3.
- Gillespie, M. M., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2007b). II. The utility of outcome expectancies in the prediction of adolescent gambling behaviour. Journal of Gambling Issues, 1969-86. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2007.19.4.
- Jones, B. T., Corbin, W., & Fromme, K. (2001). Half full or half empty, the glass still does not satisfactorily quench the thirst for knowledge on alcohol expectancies as a mechanism of change. Addiction, 96(11), 1672–1674.Google Scholar
- Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), 1184–1188. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.Google Scholar
- SAS Institute Inc. (2008). SAS/STAT® 9.2 User’s Guide. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census Bureau. (2008). School Enrollment in the United States: 2006. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2008pubs/p20-559.pdf.