Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 1, pp 33–57 | Cite as

Personal Gambling Expectancies Among Asian American and White American College Students

  • Alan Ka Ki Chan
  • Nolan Zane
  • Gloria M. Wong
  • Anna V. Song
Original Paper


Many college students are involved in gambling behavior as a recreational activity. Their involvement could potentially develop into problem gambling, an issue of increasing concern to student health. At the same time, evidence suggests that Asian Americans are overrepresented amongst problem gamblers in this age period. Research on factors related to initiation and development of problem gambling in college students is necessary to inform the development of effective and culturally-sensitive prevention efforts against gambling. The relationships between personal gambling expectancies at two levels of specificity (two general and six specific types of expectancies) and college student gambling at two levels of behavior (initiation and problems) were examined in a sample of 813 Asian American and White American college students. The study aimed to address (a) whether expectancies explained ethnic differences in gambling, (b) ethnic similarities and differences in the pattern of relationships between expectancies and gambling, and (c) whether expectancies that emerged in both ethnic groups have a greater risk or protective effect for one group than another. Results showed that Asian American students reported more problem gambling than White American students, but expectancies did not account for this group difference. Risk and protective factors for initiation were relatively similar between groups, but different patterns of risk emerged for each group for problem gambling. Implications for college primary prevention and harm reduction programs are discussed.


Gambling initiation Problem gambling Expectancies Bifactor model Asian Americans 



This study was supported by the Asian American Center on Disparities Research (National Institute of Mental Health Grant: 1P50MH073511-01A2). The authors would like to thank Drs. Shelley A. Blozis and Keith F. Widaman at the University of California, Davis for their guidance and editorial comments, and Lauren A. Nguyen for her work on this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan Ka Ki Chan
    • 1
  • Nolan Zane
    • 1
  • Gloria M. Wong
    • 1
  • Anna V. Song
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Asian American Center on Disparities ResearchUniversity of California, DavisDavisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Psychological SciencesUniversity of California, MercedMercedUSA

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