Skip to main content

Show Me the Money: Incorporating Financial Motives into the Gambling Motives Questionnaire

Abstract

Although research has only recently begun to measure what motivates all levels of gambling involvement, motives could offer a theoretically interesting and practical way to subtype gamblers in research and for responsible gambling initiatives. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is one measure that weaves together much of the gambling motives literature, but it has been criticized for neglecting financial reasons for gambling. This study uses a series of factor analyses to explore the effect of adding nine financial motives to the GMQ in a heterogeneous sample of 1,014 adult past-year gamblers. After trimming trivial financial motives, the penultimate factor analysis of the 15 GMQ items and four financial motives led to a four-factor solution, with factors tapping enhancement, social, coping and financial motives, as predicted. A final factor analysis performed on a modified GMQ-F (i.e., 16 items, including a financial subscale) revealed the same four factors, and hierarchical regression showed that the financial motives improve the GMQ-F’s prediction of gambling frequency. This study provides evidence that omitting financial motives is a clear gap in the GMQ, yet suggests that the GMQ is a promising tool that can be conceptually and empirically strengthened with the simple addition of financial items.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Back, K., Lee, C., & Stinchfield, R. (2011). Gambling motivation and passion: A comparison study of recreational and pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(3), 355–370.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Binde, P. (2009). Gambling motivation and involvement: A review of social science research, Report no. 2 in the SWELOGS-programme. Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health.

  3. Bolen, D. W., & Boyd, W. (1972). Gambling and the gambler: A review and preliminary findings. In I. Kusyszyn (Ed.), Studies in the psychology of gambling (pp. 11–27). New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Breen, H. M., Hing, N., & Gordon, A. (2011). Indigenous gambling motivations, behaviour and consequences in northern New South Wales, Australia. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(6), 723–739.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chantal, Y., Vallerand, R. J., & Vallières, E. F. (1995). Motivation and gambling involvement. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(6), 755–763.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chevalier, S., Geoffrion, C., Allard, D., & Audet, C. (2002). Motivations for gambling as tools for prevention and treatment of pathological gambling. Québec: Institut national de santé publique du Québec.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1995). Constructing validity: Basic issues in objective scale development. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 309–319.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Clarke, D., Tse, S., Abbott, M. W., Townsend, S., Kingi, P., & Manaia, W. (2007). Reasons for starting and continuing gambling in a mixed ethnic community sample of pathological and non-problem gamblers. International Gambling Studies, 7(3), 299–313.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Comrey, A. L. (1988). Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 754–761.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Conlisk, J. (1993). The utility of gambling. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 6(3), 255–275.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Cooper, M. L., Russell, M., Skinner, J. B., & Windle, M. (1992). Development and validation of a three-dimensional measure of drinking motives. Psychological Assessment, 4(2), 123–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7), 1–9.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Cotte, J. (1997). Chances, trances, and lots of slots: Gambling motives and consumption experiences. Journal of Leisure Research, 29(4), 380–406.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Dechant, K., & Ellery, M. (2011). The effect of including a monetary motive item on the gambling motives questionnaire in a sample of moderate gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(2), 331–344.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Doley, R. (2000). Want to make a bet? Gambling and crime in Australasia, Paper Series No. 4. Payneham, SA: Australasian Centre for Policing Research.

  16. Eadington, W. R. (1976). Economic aspects of Nevada’s gaming industry. In W. R. Eadington (Ed.), Gambling and society: Interdisciplinary studies on the subject of gambling (pp. 138–158). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological Methods, 4(3), 272–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Floyd, F. J., & Widaman, K. F. (1995). Factor analysis in the development and refinement of clinical assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 7(3), 286–299.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Giacopassi, D., Stitt, B. G., & Nichols, M. (2006). Motives and methods of under-age casino gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22(4), 413–426.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hess, H. F., & Diller, J. V. (1972). Motivation for gambling as revealed in the marketing methods of the legitimate gambling industry. In I. Kusyszyn (Ed.), Studies in the psychology of gambling (pp. 81–92). New York: Simon and Schuster.

    Google Scholar 

  21. Hodgins, D. C. (2008). What we see depends mainly on what we look for (John Lubbock, British anthropologist, 1834–1913) (Commentary). Addiction, 103(7), 1118–1119.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Jang, H., Lee, B., Park, M., & Stokowski, P. A. (2000). Measuring underlying meanings of gambling from the perspective of enduring involvement. Journal of Travel Research, 38(3), 230–238.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kusyszyn, I. (1990). Existence, effectance, esteem: From gambling to a new theory of human motivation. Substance Use and Misuse, 25(2), 159–177.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Lee, H., Chae, P. K., Lee, H., & Kim, Y. (2007). The five-factor gambling motivation model. Psychiatry Research, 150(1), 21–32.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Lee, C., Lee, Y., Bernhard, B. J., & Yoon, Y. (2006). Segmenting casino gamblers by motivation: A cluster analysis of Korean gamblers. Tourism Management, 27(5), 856–866.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Manitoba Gaming Control Commission. (2010). September). Winnipeg, MB: Manitobans and Gambling III.

    Google Scholar 

  27. McGrath, D. S., Stewart, S. H., Klein, R. M., & Barrett, S. P. (2010). Self-generated motives for gambling in two population-based samples of gamblers. International Gambling Studies, 10(2), 117–138.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T. W., Cronce, J. M., & Larimer, M. E. (2002). Exploring college student gambling motivation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(4), 361–370.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2010). Gambling motivations, money-limiting strategies, and precommitment preferences of problem versus non-problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(3), 361–372.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 32(3), 396–402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Pantalon, M. V., Maciejewski, P. K., Desai, R. A., & Potenza, M. N. (2008). Excitement-seeking gambling in a nationally representative sample of recreational gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(1), 63–78.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Preacher, K. J., & MacCallum, R. C. (2003). Repairing Tom Swift’s electric factor analysis machine. Understanding Statistics, 2(1), 13–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Rodgers, B., Caldwell, T., & Butterworth, P. (2009). Measuring gambling participation. Addiction, 104(7), 1065–1069.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Slutske, W. S., Jackson, K. M., & Sher, K. J. (2003). The natural history of problem gambling from age 18–29. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(2), 263–274.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Smith, R. W., & Preston, F. W. (1984). Vocabularies of motives for gambling behavior. Sociological Perspectives, 27(3), 325–348.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Stewart, S. H., & Zack, M. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of a three-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire. Addiction, 103(7), 1110–1117.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Tao, V. Y. K., Wu, A. M. S., Cheung, S. F., & Tong, K. K. (2011). Development of an indigenous inventory GMAB (Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors) for Chinese gamblers: An exploratory study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27(1), 99–113.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Thurstone, L. L. (1947). Multiple factor analysis. Chigago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  40. Trevorrow, K., & Moore, S. (1998). The association between loneliness, social isolation and women’s electronic gaming machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(3), 263–284.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Velicer, W. F. (1976). Determining the number of components from the matrix of partial correlations. Psychometrika, 41(3), 321–327.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Walker, G. J., Hinch, T. D., & Weighill, A. J. (2005). Inter- and intra-gender similarities and differences in motivations for casino gambling. Leisure Sciences, 27(2), 111–130.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Williams, R. J., Volberg, R. A. & Stevens, R. M. G. (2012, May). The Population Prevalence of Problem Gambling: Methodological Influences, Standardized Rates, Jurisdictional Differences, and Worldwide Trends. Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre and the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care.

  44. Zola, I. (1963). Observations on gambling in a lower-class setting. Social Problems, 10(4), 353–361.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Conflict of Interest

The Manitoba Gaming Control Commission (MGCC) regulates gambling in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The MGCC Research Department funded the data collection for the current study. As a regulatory agency, the MGCC receives funds from the gambling industry in the form of service-based registration fees. The gambling industry does not fund MGCC research projects directly, nor did it have any connection with or authority over this research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kristianne Dechant.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Dechant, K. Show Me the Money: Incorporating Financial Motives into the Gambling Motives Questionnaire. J Gambl Stud 30, 949–965 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-013-9386-5

Download citation

Keywords

  • Motives
  • Money
  • Financial
  • Gambling motives questionnaire
  • Factor analysis