Although research has only recently begun to measure what motivates all levels of gambling involvement, motives could offer a theoretically interesting and practical way to subtype gamblers in research and for responsible gambling initiatives. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) is one measure that weaves together much of the gambling motives literature, but it has been criticized for neglecting financial reasons for gambling. This study uses a series of factor analyses to explore the effect of adding nine financial motives to the GMQ in a heterogeneous sample of 1,014 adult past-year gamblers. After trimming trivial financial motives, the penultimate factor analysis of the 15 GMQ items and four financial motives led to a four-factor solution, with factors tapping enhancement, social, coping and financial motives, as predicted. A final factor analysis performed on a modified GMQ-F (i.e., 16 items, including a financial subscale) revealed the same four factors, and hierarchical regression showed that the financial motives improve the GMQ-F’s prediction of gambling frequency. This study provides evidence that omitting financial motives is a clear gap in the GMQ, yet suggests that the GMQ is a promising tool that can be conceptually and empirically strengthened with the simple addition of financial items.
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Conflict of Interest
The Manitoba Gaming Control Commission (MGCC) regulates gambling in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The MGCC Research Department funded the data collection for the current study. As a regulatory agency, the MGCC receives funds from the gambling industry in the form of service-based registration fees. The gambling industry does not fund MGCC research projects directly, nor did it have any connection with or authority over this research.
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Dechant, K. Show Me the Money: Incorporating Financial Motives into the Gambling Motives Questionnaire. J Gambl Stud 30, 949–965 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-013-9386-5
- Gambling motives questionnaire
- Factor analysis