Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 653–668 | Cite as

Effects of Gambling-Related Cues on the Activation of Implicit and Explicit Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers

  • Melissa J. Stewart
  • Sunghwan Yi
  • Sherry H. Stewart
Original Paper


The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers.


Gambling outcome expectancies Gambling-related cues Implicit measures Explicit measures Affective priming task 



We would like to acknowledge and thank Pamela Collins and Scott Connors for their research assistance with this study. This research was supported by a Research Grant from the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (#44449) to Sunghwan Yi and Sherry H. Stewart.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa J. Stewart
    • 1
  • Sunghwan Yi
    • 2
  • Sherry H. Stewart
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Department of Marketing & Consumer StudiesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, QEII Health Sciences CentreDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Centre for Clinical ResearchDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

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