Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 653–668 | Cite as

Effects of Gambling-Related Cues on the Activation of Implicit and Explicit Gambling Outcome Expectancies in Regular Gamblers

  • Melissa J. Stewart
  • Sunghwan Yi
  • Sherry H. Stewart
Original Paper

Abstract

The current research examined whether the presentation of gambling-related cues facilitates the activation of gambling outcome expectancies using both reaction time (RT) and self-report modes of assessment. Gambling outcome expectancies were assessed by having regular casino or online gamblers (N = 58) complete an outcome expectancy RT task, as well as a self-report measure of gambling outcome expectancies, both before and after exposure to one of two randomly assigned cue conditions (i.e., casino or control video). Consistent with hypotheses, participants exposed to gambling-related cues (i.e., casino cue video condition) responded faster to positive outcome expectancy words preceded by gambling prime relative to non-gambling prime pictures on the post-cue RT task. Similarly, participants in the casino cue video condition self-reported significantly stronger positive gambling outcome expectancies than those in the control cue video condition following cue exposure. Activation of negative gambling outcome expectancies was not observed on either the RT task or self-report measure. The results indicate that exposure to gambling cues activates both implicit and explicit positive gambling outcome expectancies among regular gamblers.

Keywords

Gambling outcome expectancies Gambling-related cues Implicit measures Explicit measures Affective priming task 

References

  1. Birch, C. D., Stewart, S. H., Wiers, R. W., Klein, R. M., MacLean, A. D., & Berish, M. J. (2008). The mood-induced activation of implicit alcohol cognition in enhancement and coping motivated drinkers. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 565–581.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Darkes, J., & Goldman, M. S. (1993). Expectancy challenge and drinking reduction: Experimental evidence for a mediational process. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 344–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Darkes, J., Greenbaum, P. E., & Goldman, M. S. (1998). Sensation seeking-disinhibition and alcohol use: Exploring issues of criterion contamination. Psychological Assessment, 10, 71–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. De Houwer, J. (2006). What are implicit measures and why are we using them? In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), Handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 11–28). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Jong, P. J., Wiers, R. W., van de Braak, M., & Huijding, J. (2007). Using the extrinsic affective Simon test as a measure of implicit attitudes towards alcohol: Relationship with drinking behavior and alcohol problems. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 881–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fazio, R. H. (1990). Multiple processes by which attitudes guide behavior: The MODE model as an integrative framework. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 23, pp. 75–109). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fazio, R. H., Jackson, J. R., Dunton, B. C., & Williams, C. J. (1995). Variability in automatic activation as unobtrusive measures of racial attitudes: A bona fide pipeline? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1013–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fazio, R. H., Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Powell, M. C., & Kardes, F. R. (1986). On the automatic activation of attitudes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 229–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: User’s manual. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  10. Gillespie, M. A. M., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2007a). Adolescent problem gambling: Developing a gambling expectancy instrument. Journal of Gambling Issues, 19, 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gillespie, M. A. M., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2007b). The utility of outcome expectancies in the prediction of adolescent gambling behaviour. Journal of Gambling Issues, 19, 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldman, M. S. (2002). Expectancy and risk for alcoholism. The unfortunate exploitation of a fundamental characteristic of neurobehavioral adaptation. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 737–746.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Goldman, M. S., Darkes, J., & Del Boca, F. K. (1999). Expectancy mediation of biopsychosocial risk for alcohol use and alcoholism. In I. Kirsch (Ed.), How expectancies shape experience (pp. 223–262). Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  14. Goldman, M. S., & Rather, B. C. (1993). Substance use disorders: Cognitive models and architectures. In P. Kendall & K. S. Dobson (Eds.), Psychopathology and cognition (pp. 245–291). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Goldman, M. S., Reich, R. R., & Darkes, J. (2006). Expectancy as a unifying construct in alcohol- related cognition. In R. W. Wiers & A. W. Stacy (Eds.), Handbook of implicit cognition and addiction (pp. 105–120). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Grady, C. L., McIntosh, A. R., Rajah, M. N., & Craik, F. I. M. (1998). Neural correlates of the episodic encoding of pictures and words. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 95, 2703–2708.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The implicit association task. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464–1480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Houben, K., Havermans, R., & Wiers, R. (2010). Learning to dislike alcohol: Conditioning negative implicit attitudes toward alcohol and its effect on drinking behavior. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 211, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jajodia, A., & Earleywine, M. (2003). Measuring alcohol expectancies with the implicit association task. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 126–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jarvis, B. G. (2010). DirectRT (version 2010) [computer software]. New York, NY: Empirisoft Corporation.Google Scholar
  21. Jones, B. T., Corbin, W., & Fromme, K. (2001). A review of expectancy theory and alcohol consumption. Addiction, 96, 57–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jones, B. T., & McMahon, J. (1996). A comparison of positive and negative alcohol expectancy and value and their multiplicative composite as predictors of post-treatment abstinence survivorship. Addiction, 91, 89–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kramer, D. A., & Goldman, M. S. (2003). Using a modified Stroop task to implicitly discern the cognitive organization of alcohol expectancies. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 171–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McMillen, J., & Wenzel, M. (2006). Measuring problem gambling: Assessment of three prevalence screens. International Gambling Studies, 6, 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Palfai, T. P., & Ostafin, B. D. (2003). The influence of alcohol on the activation of outcome expectancies: The role of evaluative expectancy activation in drinking behavior. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 64, 111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Potenza, M. N. (2006). Should addictive disorders include non-substance related conditions? Addiction, 101, 142–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sayette, M. A. (1999). Cognitive theory and research. In K. E. Leonard & H. T. Blane (Eds.), Psychological theories of drinking and alcoholism (pp. 247–291). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  28. Seifert, L. S. (1997). Activating representations in permanent memory: Different benefits for pictures and words. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 23, 1106–1121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Shead, N. W., & Hodgins, D. C. (2009). Affect-regulation expectancies among gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Stacy, A. W. (1997). Memory activation and expectancy as prospective predictors of alcohol and marijuana use. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stacy, A. W., Widaman, K. F., & Marlatt, G. A. (1990). Expectancy models of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 918–928.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8, 220–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  34. Wiers, R. W., & Stacy, A. W. (2006). Handbook of implicit cognition and addiction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  35. Wiers, R. W., Stacy, A. W., Ames, S. L., Noll, J. A., Sayette, M. A., Zack, M., et al. (2002). Implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 26, 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wiers, R. W., Van de Luitgaarden, J., van den Wildenberg, E., & Smulders, F. T. Y. (2005). Challenging implicit and explicit alcohol-related cognitions in young heavy drinkers. Addiction, 100, 806–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melissa J. Stewart
    • 1
  • Sunghwan Yi
    • 2
  • Sherry H. Stewart
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  2. 2.Department of Marketing & Consumer StudiesUniversity of GuelphGuelphCanada
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, QEII Health Sciences CentreDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada
  4. 4.Department of Community Health & Epidemiology, Centre for Clinical ResearchDalhousie UniversityHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations