Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 749–763 | Cite as

Chinese Attitudes, Norms, Behavioral Control and Gambling Involvement in Macao

  • Anise M. S. Wu
  • Mark H. C. Lai
  • Kowk Kit Tong
  • Vivienne Y. K. Tao
Original Paper


This study tested the applicability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) on gambling intention and involvement in a representative Chinese sample in Macao, recruited by a random residential number dialing method. We successfully interviewed 685 respondents, with about one-third of them reporting that they had participated in gambling activities during the 12 months prior to the interview. The results of structural equation modeling suggested that favorable attitudes toward superstition and techniques, poor sense of perceived behavioral control over gambling refusal, and high gambling intention increased vulnerability to excessive gambling involvement. These findings generally support the efficacy of the TPB in explaining gambling intention and involvement among both Chinese gamblers and non-gamblers. Some practical implications of the findings are discussed within the Chinese context.


Theory of planned behavior Gambling Chinese Techniques Superstition 



This research project was supported by the University of Macau RC Research Grant MYRG051(Y1-L1)-FSH11-TYK and MYRG040(Y1-L1)-FSH11-TKK.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anise M. S. Wu
    • 1
  • Mark H. C. Lai
    • 2
  • Kowk Kit Tong
    • 3
  • Vivienne Y. K. Tao
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities (FSH)University of MacauTaipaMacao
  2. 2.Texas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  3. 3.University of MacauTaipaMacao

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