An Empirical Study of Gender Differences in Online Gambling
- 1.6k Downloads
Gambling has typically been considered a predominately male activity. However, recent prevalence surveys have shown greater numbers of females are now gambling. Much of the gambling literature suggests online gamblers are more likely to be male, and that problem gamblers are more likely to be male. Males and females are also likely to be gambling for different reasons and have a preference for different gambling activities. Little is known about the pattern of play among female online gamblers. The aim of this survey was to develop a better profile of female online gamblers and to examine any gender differences between males and females in terms of how and why they gamble online, their frequency of online gambling, patterns of play, as well as attitudes to online gambling. The survey was posted on 32 international online gambling websites and was completed by 975 online gamblers (including 175 female online gamblers). Chi-square tests of association were conducted to examine the association between gender and a range of variables. The results showed that females had been gambling online for a shorter duration of time than males, had much shorter online gambling sessions, different motivations for gambling online (i.e., to practice for free, to spend less money and out of boredom), and experienced online gambling differently to males, with increased feelings of guilt and shame for gambling online. This suggests there is still a stigma around gambling particularly evident among females in this study. The findings indicate that clinicians and treatment providers need to be aware of these potential gender differences in online gambling to develop appropriately tailored interventions.
KeywordsGambling Online gambling Internet Gender differences
- Brown, S., & Coventry, L. (1997). Queen of hearts: The needs of women with gambling problems. Melbourne: Financial and Consumer Rights Council.Google Scholar
- EmaxHealth. (2010). Compulsive online gambling affects growing number of women. Located at http://www.emaxhealth.com/1275/49/35139/compulsive-online-gambling-affects-growing-number-women.html. Accessed 27 Sept 2012.
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Gambling Commission. (2010). Survey data on gambling participation, January 2010. Retrieved from http://www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk/research__consultations/research/survey_data_on_remote_gam/survey_data_on_remote_gambling.aspx.
- Griffiths, M. (2001). Internet gambling: Preliminary results of the first U.K. prevalence study. Journal of Gambling Issues, 5. Available at: http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue5/research/griffiths_article.html. Accessed 27 Sept 2012.
- Griffiths, M. D. (2011). Technological trends and the psychosocial impact on gambling. Casino and Gaming International, 7(1), 77–80.Google Scholar
- Griffiths, M. D., & Whitty, M. W. (2010). Online behavioural tracking in Internet gambling research: Ethical and methodological issues. International Journal of Internet Research Ethics, 3, 104–117.Google Scholar
- Nixon, G., Solowoniuk, J., Hagen, B., & Williams, J. (2005). “Double trouble”: The lived experience of problem and pathological gambling in later life. Journal of Gambling Issues, 14. doi: 10.4309/jgi.2005.14.10.
- Stewart, D. (2006). An analysis of internet gambling and its policy implications. American Gaming Association. 10th Anniversary White paper series.Google Scholar
- Taber, J., McCormick, R., & Ramirez, L. (1987). The prevalence and impact of major life stressors among pathological gamblers. International Journal of the Addictions, 22, 44–48.Google Scholar
- Vitaro, F., Arseneault, L., & Tremblay, R. (1997). Dispositional predictors of problem gambling in male adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 12.Google Scholar
- Wardle, H., Moody, A., Spence, S., Orford, J., Volber, R., Jotangia, D., et al. (2011b). British gambling prevalence survey, 2010. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
- Wardle, H., Sproston, K., Orford, J., Erens, B., Griffiths, M., Constantine, R., et al. (2007). British gambling prevalence survey 2007. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
- Wood, R., & Williams, R. (2009). Internet gambling: Prevalence, patterns, problems and policy options. Final Report prepared for the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. Guelph, ON, Canada. January 5, 2009.Google Scholar
- Wood, R., Williams, R., & Lawton, P. (2007b). Why do internet gamblers prefer online versus land-based venues? Some preliminary findings and implications. Journal of Gambling Issues, 20, 235–252.Google Scholar
- Wynne, H. (2003). Introducing the Canadian problem gambling index. Edmonton, AB: Wynne Resources.Google Scholar
- Zacharias, J. (2010). Internet gambling: Is it worth the risk? Located at: http://www.bcresponsiblegambling.ca/other/docs/internet_gambling_jan_zacharias.pdf. Accessed 25 Aug 2010.
- Zuckerman, M. (1983). Biological basis of sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar