Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 29, Issue 4, pp 765–774 | Cite as

An Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of Italian Version of CPGI

  • Emanuela Colasante
  • Mercedes Gori
  • Luca Bastiani
  • Valeria Siciliano
  • Paolo Giordani
  • Mario Grassi
  • Sabrina Molinaro
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to adapt to the Italian context a very commonly used international instrument to detect problem gambling, the canadian problem gambling index (CPGI), and assess its psychometric properties. Cross-cultural adaptation of CPGI was performed in several steps and the questionnaire was administered as a survey among Italian general population (n = 5,292). Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.87 and can be considered to be highly reliable. Construct validity was assessed first by means of a principal component analysis and then by means of confirmatory factor analysis, showing that only one factor, problem gambling, was extracted from the CPGI questionnaire (an eigenvalues of 4,684 with percentage of variance 52 %). As far as convergent validity is concerned, CPGI was compared with Lie/Bet questionnaire, a two-item screening tool for detecting problem gamblers, and with both depression and stress scales. A short form DSM-IV CIDI questionnaire was used for depression and VRS scale, a rating scale, was used for rapid stress evaluation. A strong convergent validity with these instruments was found and these findings are consistent with past research on problem gambling, where another way to confirm the validity is to determine the extent to which it correlates with other qualities or measures known to be directly related to problem gambling. In sum, despite the lack of a direct comparison with a classic gold-standard such as DSM-IV, the Italian version of CPGI exhibits good psychometric properties and can be used among the Italian general population to identify at-risk problem gamblers.


Problem gambling Survey Psychometric properties CPGI 



The authors would like to thank Daniela Capitanucci for helpful suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emanuela Colasante
    • 1
  • Mercedes Gori
    • 1
  • Luca Bastiani
    • 1
  • Valeria Siciliano
    • 1
  • Paolo Giordani
    • 2
  • Mario Grassi
    • 3
  • Sabrina Molinaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Clinical PhysiologyNational Council of ResearchPisaItaly
  2. 2.Department of Statistical SciencesSapienza University of RomeRomeItaly
  3. 3.Department of Applied Health SciencesPavia UniversityPaviaItaly

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