An Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of Italian Version of CPGI
- 331 Downloads
The aim of this study was to adapt to the Italian context a very commonly used international instrument to detect problem gambling, the canadian problem gambling index (CPGI), and assess its psychometric properties. Cross-cultural adaptation of CPGI was performed in several steps and the questionnaire was administered as a survey among Italian general population (n = 5,292). Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was 0.87 and can be considered to be highly reliable. Construct validity was assessed first by means of a principal component analysis and then by means of confirmatory factor analysis, showing that only one factor, problem gambling, was extracted from the CPGI questionnaire (an eigenvalues of 4,684 with percentage of variance 52 %). As far as convergent validity is concerned, CPGI was compared with Lie/Bet questionnaire, a two-item screening tool for detecting problem gamblers, and with both depression and stress scales. A short form DSM-IV CIDI questionnaire was used for depression and VRS scale, a rating scale, was used for rapid stress evaluation. A strong convergent validity with these instruments was found and these findings are consistent with past research on problem gambling, where another way to confirm the validity is to determine the extent to which it correlates with other qualities or measures known to be directly related to problem gambling. In sum, despite the lack of a direct comparison with a classic gold-standard such as DSM-IV, the Italian version of CPGI exhibits good psychometric properties and can be used among the Italian general population to identify at-risk problem gamblers.
KeywordsProblem gambling Survey Psychometric properties CPGI
The authors would like to thank Daniela Capitanucci for helpful suggestions.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IVTR (4th, text revision ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Amministrazione Autonoma dei Monopoli di Stato, AAMS. (2011). I dati ufficiali AAMS ‘‘Official data AAMS’’. Retrieved from http://www.aams.gov.it/.
- Arthur, D., Tong, W. L., Chen, C. P., Hing, A. Y., Sagara-Rosemeyer, M., Kua, E. H., et al. (2008). The validity and reliability of four measures of gambling behaviour in a sample of singapore university students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 451–462. doi: 10.1007/s10899-008-9103-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bastiani L, Gori M, Colasante E, Siciliano V, Capitanucci D, Jarre P, Molinaro S (2011). Complex factors and behaviors in the gambling population of Italy. J Gambl Stud 2011 Dec 4 [Epub ahead of print].Google Scholar
- Brace, N., Kemp, R., & Snelgar, R. (2009). SPSS for psychologists. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Dipartimento per le Politiche Antidroga (DPA), Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri. (2008). Relazione Annuale al Parlamento sullo Stato delle Tossicodipendenze In Italia 2007. Retrieved from http://www.governo.it/GovernoInforma/Dossier/relazione_droga_2007/.
- Ferris J,Wynne H (2001a). The Canadian problem gambling index: User manual. Ottawa: The Canadian centre on substance abuse. Ottawa, ON: Canadian centre on substance abuse.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001b). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- McMillen, J., Marshall, D., Ahmed, E., & Wenzel, M. (2004). 2003 Victorian longitudinal community attitudes survey. Canberra, Australia: The Centre for Gambling Research, Australian National University.Google Scholar
- Neal, P., Delfabbro, P. H., & O’Neill, M. (2004). Problem gambling and harm: Towards a national definition. Melbourne: National Gambling Research Program Working Party.Google Scholar
- Nunnally, J. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Roy Morgan Research. (2006). The fourth study into the extent and impact of gambling in Tasmania with particular reference to problem gambling: Follow-up to the studies conducted in 1994, 1996, and 2000. Hobart, Tasmania: Gambling Support Bureau, Department of Health and Services.Google Scholar
- Tarsitani, L., & Biondi, M. (1999). Sviluppo e validazione della scala VRS (valutazione rapida dello stress). Development and validation of the VRS, a rating scale for rapid stress assessment. Medicina Psicosomatica, 3, 163–177.Google Scholar
- Treasury, Queensland. (2006). Queensland household gambling survey 2003–04. Brisbane: Queensland Government.Google Scholar