Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 575–588 | Cite as

Problem Gambling in Adolescents: An Examination of the Pathways Model

  • Rina Gupta
  • Lia Nower
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky
  • Alex Blaszczynski
  • Neda Faregh
  • Caroline Temcheff
Original Paper

Abstract

This research tests the applicability of the Integrated Pathways Model for gambling to adolescent problem gamblers, utilizing a cross-sectional design and self-report questionnaires. Although the overall sample consisted of 1,133 adolescents (Quebec: n = 994, 87.7 %; Ontario: n = 139, 12.3 %: Male = 558, 49.5 %; Female = 569, 50.5 %), only problem gamblers were retained in testing the model (N = 109). Personality and clinical features were assessed using the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory, attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) using the Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale, and the DSM-IV-MR-J and Gambling Activities Questionnaire to determine gambling severity and reasons for gambling. Latent class analysis concluded 5 classes, yet still provided preliminary support for three distinct subgroups similar to those proposed by the Pathways Model, adding a depression only subtype, and a subtype of problem gamblers experiencing both internalizing and externalizing disorders. ADHD symptoms were found to be common to 4 of the 5 classes.

Keywords

Adolescent gambling Problem gambling Etiology Gambling subtypes Co morbidity 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental health disorders (DSM-IV) (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  3. Bagby, R., Vachon, D., Bulmash, E., Toneatto, T., Quilty, L., & Costa, P. (2007). Pathological gambling and the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 873–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A. P., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczynski, A. P., Steel, Z., & McConaghy, N. (1997). Impulsivity in pathological gambling: The antisocial impulsivist. Addiction, 92, 75–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnaire, C., Varescon, I., & Bungener, C. (2007). Sensation seeking in a French population of horse betting gamblers: Comparison between pathological and regular. Encephale, 33, 798–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, D. (2006). Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between depression and problem gambling. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 5–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Conners, C. K., & Wells, K. C. (1997). Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale (CASS). Toronto, ON: Multi-Health Systems Inc.Google Scholar
  9. Daughters, S. B., & Lejuez, C. W. (2005). The relationship among negative affect, distress tolerance, and length of gambling abstinence attempt. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 363–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2004). Adolescents with gambling problems: A review of our current knowledge. e-Gambling: The Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, 10, 119–140.Google Scholar
  11. Derevensky, J., Pratt, L., Hardoon, K., & Gupta, R. (2007). The relationship between gambling problems and impulsivity among adolescents: Some preliminary data and thoughts. Journal of Addiction Medicine, 1(3), 165–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickson, L., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2008). Youth gambling problems: An examination of risk and protective factors. International Gambling Studies, 8(1), 25–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisher, S. (1992). Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the U.K. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 263–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fisher, S. (2000). Developing the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria to identify adolescent problem gambling in non-clinical populations. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 253–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerstein, D. R., Volberg, R. A., Toce, M. T., Harwood, H., Johnson, R. A., Buie, T., et al. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Report to the national gambling impact study commission. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  16. Gonzalez-Ibanez, A., Aymami, M. N., Jimemez, S., Domenech, J. M., Granero, R., & Lourido-Ferreira, M. R. (2003). Assessment of pathological gamblers who use slot machines. Psychological Reports, 93, 707–716.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1996). The relationship between gambling and video-game playing behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 375–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1997). An empirical examination of Jacobs’ general theory of addictions: Do adolescent gamblers fit the theory? Paper presented to the annual meeting of the national conference on compulsive gambling, New Orleans, LA, August.Google Scholar
  19. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (2004). A treatment approach for adolescents with gambling problems. In J. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 165–188). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  20. Jacobs, D. F. (2004). Youth gambling in North America: Long-term trends and future prospects. In J. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives. New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  21. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. (2006). Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers. Psychiatry Research, 144, 17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Millon, T., Millon, C., Davis, R., & Grossman, S. (2006). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). Minnesota: Pearson Assessments.Google Scholar
  23. Moodie, C., & Finnigan, F. (2005). A comparison of the autonomic arousal of frequent, infrequent and non gamblers while playing fruit machines. Addiction, 100, 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2008). Mplus (version 5.1) [computer software]. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  25. National Research Council. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  26. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2004). A pathways approach to treating youth gamblers. In J. L. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth. Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 189–209). New York: Kluwer/Plenum.Google Scholar
  27. Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthen, B. O. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14(4), 535–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Petry, N. (2005). Pathological gambling. Etiology, co-morbidity and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Pietrzak, R. H., & Petry, N. M. (2005). Antisocial personality disorder is associated with increased severity of gambling, medical, drug, and psychiatric problems among treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Addiction, 8, 1183–1193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rugle, L., & Melamed, L. (1993). Neuropsychological assessment of attention problems in pathological gamblers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 18, 107–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sacco, P., Cunningham-William, R.-M., Ostmann, E., & Spitznagel, E. L. (2008). The association between gambling pathology and personality disorders. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 1122–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stewart, S. H., Zack, M., Collins, P., Klein, R. M., & Fragopoulos, F. (2008). Subtyping pathological gamblers on the basis of affective motivations for gambling: Relations to gambling problems, drinking problems, and affective motivations for drinking. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(2), 257–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. van Hamel, A., Derevensky, J., Dickson, L., & Gupta, R. (2007). Adolescent gambling and coping within a generalized high-risk behaviour framework. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(4), 377–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Volberg, R., Gupta, R., Griffiths, M., Olason, D., & Delfabbro, P. (2010). An international perspective on youth gambling prevalence studies. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22, 3–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rina Gupta
    • 1
  • Lia Nower
    • 2
  • Jeffrey L. Derevensky
    • 1
  • Alex Blaszczynski
    • 3
  • Neda Faregh
    • 1
  • Caroline Temcheff
    • 4
  1. 1.International Centre for Youth Gambling Problems and High-Risk BehaviorsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Center for Gambling StudiesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  3. 3.Gambling Research Unit, School of PsychologyUniversity of SydneySydneyAustralia
  4. 4.Département de PsychoéducationUniversité de SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

Personalised recommendations