Intergenerational Transmission of Gambling: Links Between Young Adult and Perceived Grandparent Gambling Attitudes and Behavior
- 431 Downloads
This study examined associations between the gambling attitudes and behavior of 213 young adults and their perceptions of the gambling attitudes and behavior of their closest grandparent. Regression analyses showed that young adult gambling attitudes mediated the relations between perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior and young adult gambling behavior. Grandparent–grandchild relationship quality experienced while growing up did not moderate the relations between young adult and perceived grandparent gambling attitudes and behavior. Men experienced gambling at a younger age and reported more positive gambling attitudes, more frequent gambling activity, higher levels of gambling pathology, and higher levels of gambling affinity than women. Implications of results and suggestions for future research are discussed.
KeywordsGambling behavior Gambling attitudes Young adults Grandparents Perceptions
We would like to thank Melissa DeLisle, Jenna Hoffert, Renee Lawler, Melissa McCanney, Megan Mills, Rebecca Moll, and Bethany Petry for their assistance with data collection. This paper is based on a thesis completed by the first author in partial fulfillment of the requirements for a master’s degree from North Dakota State University. We would like to thank the members of her committee: Margaret Fitzgerald, Greg Sanders, and Kevin Thompson. NIH Grant Number P20 RR016741 from the INBRE Program of the National Center for Research Resources, the Dean of Human Development and Education at NDSU through the Support to Build Research Capability mechanism, and the Department of Human Development and Family Science.
- AARP. (2002). The grandparent study 2002 report. Retrieved from http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/general/gp_2002.pdf.
- Adebayo, B. (1998). Luck of the dice: Gambling attitudes of a sample of community college students. College Student Journal, 32, 255–257.Google Scholar
- Administration on Aging. (2007). A profile of older Americans: 2006. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on September 30, 2007, from http://www.aoa.gov/AOARoot/Aging_statistics/Profile/2006/2006profile.pdf.
- Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
- Arnett, J. J. (2010). Adolescence and emerging adulthood: A cultural approach (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theories. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Boon, S. D., & Brussoni, M. J. (1996). Young adults’ relationships with their “closest” grandparents: Examining emotional closeness. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 11, 439–458.Google Scholar
- Burge, A. N., Pietrzak, R. H., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Pre/early adolescent onset of gambling and psychosocial problems in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 263–274.Google Scholar
- Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Michaud, V. (2004). Comparisons between South Oaks Gambling Screen and a DSM-IV based interview in a community survey. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 258–264.Google Scholar
- Dorfman, J. H. (1996). Pseudorandom sampling has a real effect on test size. The American Statistician, 50, 151–155.Google Scholar
- Dowling, N. A., Jackson, A. C., Thomas, S. A., & Frydenberg, E. (2010). Children at risk of developing problem gambling. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, S. E., Davis-Kean, P. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2005). Parents, peers, and problem behavior: A longitudinal investigation of the impact of relationship perceptions and characteristics on the development of adolescent problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 41, 401–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hayslip, B., Shore, J., & Henderson, C. E. (2000). Perceptions of grandparents’ influence in the lives of their grandchildren. In B. Hayslip & R. S. Goldberg-Glen (Eds.), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives (pp. 35–46). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kemp, C. L. (2003). The social and demographic contours of contemporary grandparenthood: Mapping patterns in Canada and the United States. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34, 187–212.Google Scholar
- Kopera-Frye, K., & Wiscott, R. (2000). Intergenerational continuity: Transmission of beliefs and culture. In B. Hayslip & R. S. Goldberg-Glen (Eds.), Grandparents raising grandchildren: Theoretical, empirical, and clinical perspectives (pp. 65–84). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Kristianson, S., & Jensen, S. M. (2011). Prevalence of gambling problems among adolescents in the Nordic countries: An overview of national gambling surveys 1997–2009. International Journal of Social Welfare, 20, 75–86.Google Scholar
- National Gambling Impact Study Commission. (1999). National Gambling Impact Study Commission Final Report. Retrieved April 1, 2007, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/ngisc/reports/fullrpt.html.
- National Opinion Research Center. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Highlights. Retrieved April 30, 2007, from http://www2.norc.org/new/pdf/high.pdf.
- Newman, S. C., & Thompson, A. H. (2007). The association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide: Findings from a national survey in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 605–612.Google Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., & Leonardelli, G. J. (2001, March). Calculation for the Sobel test: An interactive calculation tool for mediation [Computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org/sobel/sobel.htm.
- Smith, G. T., Miller, T. L., Kroll, L., Simmons, J. R., & Gallen, R. (1999). Children’s perceptions of parental drinking: The eye of the beholder. Journal of Studies Abroad, 69, 817–824.Google Scholar
- Tepperman, L., Albanese, P., & Stark, S. (2011). The intergenerational transmission of problem gambling: A sociological approach. Ontario: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar