After the Ban of Slot Machines in Norway: A New Group of Treatment-Seeking Pathological Gamblers?
- 453 Downloads
Changes in demographical and clinical features of treatment-seeking pathological gamblers, and their gambling preferences before and after the ban of slot machines in Norway from 1 July 2007. Is there an emergence of a new group of gamblers seeking treatment after the ban? The participants were 99 patients, 16 women and 83 men, with the mean age of 35 years. All were referred to the Bergen Clinics Foundation, Norway, for treatment of gambling addiction in the period October 2006 to October 2009. A comprehensive assessment package was applied, focusing on demographical characteristics, the severity of pathological gambling, mental health and substance use disorder. After the ban the mean age was significantly lower, and significantly more were highly educated, in regular employment, and married. Internet gambling and a sport betting game called Odds were the most common options, and gambling problems had become more severe with greater depth due to gambling, bad conscious, heavy alcohol consumption, and more suicidal thoughts and attempts. After the ban of slot machines, the characteristics of treatment-seeking gamblers have been changed, and with great implications for treatment strategies.
KeywordsBan Treatment-seeking Pathological gamblers Features
We wish to acknowledge the clinicians Anne Mariken Gjernes, Arild Opheim, Espen Dahl, Helene Charlotte Sande and Morten Mitsem who were engaged in collection of data at the outpatient part of The Bergen Clinics Foundation, and Erik Iversen for reading through this manuscript.
- Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). AUDIT, the alcohol use disorder identification test. Guidelines for use in primary care (2nd ed.). Switzerland: World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence.Google Scholar
- Bakken, I. J., & Weggeberg, H. (2008). Pengespill og pengespillproblemer i Norge 2008. Helse, Norway: SINTEF.Google Scholar
- Dannon, P. N., Lowengrub, K., Aizer, A., & Kotler, M. (2006). Pathological gambling: Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses in patients and their families. Isr Journal of Psychiatry Related Science, 43, 88–92.Google Scholar
- Derogatis, L. (1992). SCL-90-R: Administration, scoring & procedures manual-II for the r(evised) version and other instruments of the psychopathology rating series. Towson, MD: Clinical psychometric Research, Inc.Google Scholar
- Grant, J. E., Kushnes, M. G., & Won Kim, S. (2002). Pathological gambling and alcohol use disorder. Alcohol Research & Health, 26, 143–150.Google Scholar
- Gyllstrøm, F. (2008). Pengespill. Utvikling eller reguleringer? (Gambling. Development after regulations?). Paper presented at the seminar”Pengespill og avhengighet—Er de nye automatene snille nok? Vil pengespill på nett overta?” Oslo: arranged by SIRUS, September 3, 2008.Google Scholar
- Iversen, E. (2005). Veiledning til Pasient- og klient - kartleggingsskjema til bruk for tiltak i rusfeltet (4.0th ed.). Norwegian Institute for Alcohol and Drug Reasearch (SIRUS), Bergen/Oslo.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R. (2002). Understanding and treating the pathological gambler. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Lund, I, & Nordlund, S. (2003). Pengespill og pengespillproblemer I Norge. Oslo: (SIRUS), rapport nr. 2.Google Scholar
- Øren, A. & Leistad, L. (2010). Endringer i den norske befolkningens pengespillvaner og påvirkning av spilleautomatforbudet. SINTEF.Google Scholar
- Rossow, I., & Hansen, M. (2003). Underholdning med bismak – ungdom, og pengespill. NOVA–rapport 1/03.Google Scholar
- Teo, P., Mythily, S., Ananta, S., & Winslow, M. (2007). Demographic and clinical features of 150 pathological gamblers referred to a community addictions programme. Annals Academy of Medicine, 36, 165–168.Google Scholar
- The Norwegian Gaming and Foundation Authority (2008). Hjelpelinjen for spilleavhengige, Samtalestatistikk (The helpline for problem gamblers. Call statistics). Retrieved August, 2008 from http://lottstift.no/dav/d3cf09723d.pdf.
- The Norwegian Gaming and Foundation Authority (2010). Hjelpelinjen for spilleavhengige, Samtalestatistikk (The helpline for problem gamblers. Call statistics). Retrieved July, 2010 from http://www.lottstift.no/dav/51edf7be79.pdf.
- Tryggvesson, K. (2009). Internet poker: Prevalence and problems in Sweden 2006. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 6, 503–519.Google Scholar
- Van-Es, R. (2000). Identifying problem and compulsive gamblers. Canadian Family Physican. Le Medecin de famille canadien, 46, 1323–1331.Google Scholar