Assessing Corporate Social Responsibility in China’s Sports Lottery Administration and Its Influence on Consumption Behavior
The purpose of this study was to identify and examine consumer perception of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China’s sports lottery industry, and the effect of perceived CSR initiatives on sports lottery consumption behavior. Research participants (N = 4,980), selected based on a computer-generated, randomly stratified multistage sampling process, comprised Chinese residents who had purchased sports lottery tickets in the past 12 months. They completed a questionnaire that was derived from a qualitative research process. A factor analysis extracted two factors associated with perceptions of CSR in China’s sports lottery administration: Regulatory and Prevention Responsibilities and Product Development Responsibility. Logistic regression analyses revealed that these two factors were influential of consumer behavior (i.e., relative and absolute expenditure, purchasing frequency, and time commitment). This study represents an initial effort to understand the dimensions of perceived CSR associated with Chinese sports lottery. The findings signify the importance of enforcing CSR in sports lottery administration.
KeywordsConsumer well-being Sports gamble China market Corporate social responsibility Problem gambling
This study is supported by the National Philosophy and Social Science Foundation of China (08CTY005).
- Abt, V., Smith, J. F., & Christiansen, E. M. (1985). The business of risk: Commercial gambling in mainstream America. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas.Google Scholar
- American Gaming Association. (2009). Gaming revenue: Current-year data. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from http://www.americangaming.org/Industry/factsheets/statistics.
- Aupperle, K. E. (1982). An empirical inquiry into the social responsibilities as defined by corporations: An examination of various models and relationships. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens.Google Scholar
- Blaszczynski, A. (2001). Harm minimization strategies in gambling: An overview of international initiatives and interventions. Melbourne: Australian Gaming Council.Google Scholar
- Bowen, H. R. (1953). Social responsibilities of the businessman. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
- Buchanan, J., & Johnson, L. W. (2007). Corporate social responsibility and the gaming industry: A contradiction in terms? Paper presented at Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.Google Scholar
- Business in the Community. (1997). Cause related marketing corporate survey report and cause related marketing consumer research. Available from www.BITC.uk.org.
- Camelot. (2009). Camelot corporate responsibility review 2009. Available from www.camelotgroup.co.uk/crreport2009/docs/Camelot_CR_Review_final.pdf.
- Carroll, A. (1979). A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4(4), 497–505.Google Scholar
- China Financial and Economic Publishing House. (2007, 2008, 2009). China Lottery Almanac 2007, 2008, 2009. Beijing: China Financial and Economic Publishing House.Google Scholar
- China Sports Lottery Administration Center. (2011). Annual report and accounts 2010. Available from http://www.lottery.gov.cn/events/2010/Default.aspx.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for he the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Cone Inc. (1999). Americans do good by shopping with a cause in mind. Available from http://www.coneinc.com.
- Cornish, D. B. (1978). Gambling: A review of the literature and its implications for policy and research. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
- Crowther, D. (2003). Corporate social reporting: genuine action or window dressing? In D. Crowther & L. Rayman-Bacchus (Eds.), Perspectives on corporate social responsibility (pp. 140–160). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Dickerson, M. G. (1993). A preliminary exploration of a two-stage methodology in the assessment of the extent and degree of gambling-related problems in the Australian population. In W. R. Eadington & J. A. Cornelius (Eds.), Gambling behavior and gambling problem (pp. 347–364). Reno, NV: Institute for the Study of Gambling and Commercial Gaming.Google Scholar
- Eadington, W. (2003). Trends in gambling and responsible gambling in the United States and elsewhere. Available from www.unr.edu/gaming.
- Freedman, M., & Jaggi, B. (1986). An analysis of the impact of corporate pollution disclosures included in annual financial statements on investors decisions. Advances in Public Interest Accounting, 1, 193–212.Google Scholar
- Friedman, M. (1962). Capitalism and freedom. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
- Gala Coral. (2006). Corporate social responsibility strategy. Available from www.galacoral.co.uk/Files/CSR_2006.pdf.
- Gambling Commission. (2010). Annual report and accounts 2009/10. Available from www.gamblingcommission.gov.uk.
- General Administration of Sport of China. (1998). Provisional regulations on administration of public welfare fund collected from sports lottery. Available from http://www.sport.gov.cn.
- Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Griffiths, M., & Parke, J. (2002). The social impact of internet gambling. Social Science Computer Review, 20(3), 312–320.Google Scholar
- Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Black, W. C., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Multivariate data analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
- Hing, N. (2000). Changing fortunes: Past, present and future perspectives on the management of problem gambling by new south wales registered clubs. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney—Macarthur.Google Scholar
- Hong Kong Jockey Club. (2010). Annual report for the year ended 30 June 2010. Available from http://www.hkjc.com/home/english/index.asp.
- Kedia, B., & Kuntz, E. C. (1981). The context of social performance: An empirical study of Texas banks. Research in corporate social performance and policy, 3, 133–154.Google Scholar
- Ladbrokes. (2009). Corporate responsibility report 2009. Available from http://www.annualreport-2009.ladbrokesplc.com/business-review/corporate-responsibility.aspx#Our.
- LaFleur, T., & LaFleur, B. (2010). LaFleur’s 2010 world lottery almanac. Boyds: TLF.Google Scholar
- Lerner, L. D., & Fryxell, G. E. (1988). An empirical study of the predictors of corporate social performance: A multi-dimensional analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, 7, 951–959.Google Scholar
- Lottomatica Group. (2009). Lottomatica Group 2009 social report. Available from www.lottomaticagroup.com/eng/social/sr_02bilancio.html.
- Margolis, J. D., & Walsh, J. P. (2001). Social enterprise series no. 19—Misery loves companies: Whither social initiatives by business? Harvard Business School Working Paper Series, No. 01-058.Google Scholar
- Moran, E. (1987). Gambling among schoolchildren: The impact of the fruit machine. London: National Council on Gambling.Google Scholar
- Nieminen, R. (2006). Sports betting and social responsibility. European State Lotteries and Toto Association, 22, 6.Google Scholar
- Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Pratten, J. D., & Walton, S. (2009). Policy and reality: Corporate social responsibility in the UK gambling industry. Corporate Responsibility Research Conference 2008. Queen’s Discussion Paper Series on Corporate Responsibility Research no. 6.Google Scholar
- Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries. Report No. 10, AusInfo, Canberra, Australia.Google Scholar
- Rockness, J., Schlachter, P., & Rockness, H. O. (1986). Hazardouswaste disposal, corporate disclosure, and financial performance in the chemical industry. Advances in Public Interest Accounting, 1, 167–191.Google Scholar
- Skinner, G. W. (2002). Marketing and social structure in rural China. Ann Arbor, Mich: Association for Asian Studies.Google Scholar
- Smith, G. (2009). Sports betting in Canada. International Sports Law Journal, 1–2, 106–111.Google Scholar
- Smith, G., & Rubenstein, D. (2009). Accountability and social responsibility in Ontario’s legal gambling regime. Final Report to Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre (OPGRC), pp. 34–55.Google Scholar
- Thomas, J. R., Nelson, J. K., & Silverman, S. J. (2005). Research methods in physical activity (5th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
- Thompson, D. (2009). Camelot Stakeholder Report 2008/09. Camelot Group, 5.Google Scholar
- Tian, Z., Wang R., & Yang W. (2011). Consumer responses to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in China. Journal of Business Ethics. doi: 10.1007/s10551-010-0716-6.
- Tsoutsoura, M. (2004). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance. Center for Responsible Business. Working Paper Series. Paper 7. University of California. http://www.repositories.cdlib.org/crb/wps/7.
- Veikkaus (2009). Veikkaus’ Year: CSR report annual report. Available from https://www.veikkaus.fi/idc/groups/corporate/documents/document/vuosiraportti_e_09.pdf.
- Wang, X. (2008). Policy alternatives for the development of China’s gaming industry. Beijing: China Financial and Economic.Google Scholar
- Weinstein, D., & Deitch, L. (1974). The impact of legalized gambling: The socioeconomic consequences of lotteries and off-track betting. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar