Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 685–700 | Cite as

Self-Exclusion as a Harm Minimization Strategy: Evidence for the Casino Sector from Selected European Countries

  • Tobias Hayer
  • Gerhard Meyer
Original Paper


As the international gambling market continues to expand, determining effective approaches to prevent gambling-related problems becomes increasingly important. Despite a lack of in-depth research into its benefits, self-exclusion is one such measure already in use around the world in various sectors of the gambling industry. The present study is the first of its kind to examine the effectiveness of self-exclusion schemes in the casino sector in selected European countries. A written survey yielded a sample of N = 152 (self)-excluded gamblers. In addition to this cross-section analysis, a small sub-group (n = 31) was monitored over time by means of follow-up surveys carried out 1, 6, and 12 month(s) after the exclusion agreement came into force. The results reveal that the self-excluded individuals are typically under a great deal of strain and show a relatively pronounced willingness to change. However, this largely reaches its peak at the time the decision to self-exclude is made. From a longitudinal perspective, various parameters indicate a clear improvement in psychosocial functioning; a favorable effect that also starts directly after the exclusion agreement was signed. Finally, considering theoretical and empirical findings, possibilities for optimizing (self-)exclusion schemes will be discussed.


Pathological gambling Self-exclusion Casino Longitudinal Program evaluation 



We would like to thank first and foremost those gamblers who took the time to answer our questions in writing or in person in what must often have been a difficult phase in their lives. We would also like to thank the staff at the participating casinos in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, who faced the challenging task of handing out a questionnaire on self-exclusion to the survey participants. Finally, we would like extend our thanks to Casinos Austria AG, Casinos Austria International Holding GmbH, Österreichische Lotterien Ges.m.b.H, and Österreichische Sportwetten Ges.m.b.H, who jointly commissioned this research project. The authors retained full independence in the selection of the research aims, planning and realization of the study, analysis and interpretation of the data, and publication of the results.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Psychology and Cognition ResearchUniversity of BremenBremenGermany

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