Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 171–190 | Cite as

Twelve-Step Facilitated Versus Mapping-Enhanced Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pathological Gambling: A Controlled Study

  • Janice C. Marceaux
  • Cameron L. Melville
Original Paper

Abstract

This study examined the efficacy of two group treatments for pathological gambling, a node-link mapping-enhanced cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT-mapping) and twelve-step facilitated (TSF) group treatment. Forty-nine participants meeting criteria for pathological gambling were recruited from local newspaper advertisements. These participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: TSF (n = 11), CBGT-mapping (n = 18), and Wait-List control (n = 9); 11 refused treatment prior to randomization. Outcome measures included number of DSM-IV criteria met, perception of control/self-efficacy, desire to gamble, and frequency of gambling episodes. Analyses revealed a significant treatment group × time interaction (η²partial = .39). Specifically, the group treatments resulted in significant improvements in the dependent measures, while the Wait-List group remained relatively stable. Overall, CBGT-mapping and TSF had no significant differences on any outcome measure at follow-up assessments. Analysis of post-treatment and 6-month follow-up reveal a significant improvement in gambling outcomes (i.e., fewer DSM-IV criteria met, greater self-efficacy, and fewer gambling episodes (η²partial = .35), with treatment gains maintained at 6 months. These results are consistent with previous research for group treatment for pathological gambling and provide support for the utility of TSF and a mapping-based CBT therapy as viable intervention for pathological gambling.

Keywords

Pathological gambling Group treatment Cognitive–behavioral Twelve-step Mapping 

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Arribas, M. P., & Martinez, J. J. (1991). Tratamiento individual de jugadores patologicos: Descripcion de casos. Analisis y Modificacion de Conducta, 17, 255–269.Google Scholar
  3. Bannister, G. (1977). Cognitive behaviour therapy in a case of a compulsive gambler. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 1, 223–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1990). Beck Anxiety Inventory: Manual (Rev. ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace & Company.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory: Manual (2nd ed.). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace & Company.Google Scholar
  6. Blanco, C. (2005). Theoretical models of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 15. Retrieved February 25, 2006, from http://www.camh.net/egambling/pdf/jgi_15_blanco.pdf.
  7. Bujold, A., Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., & Boisvert, J. M. (1994). Treatment of pathological gamblers: An experimental study. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 275–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coman, G. J., Evans, B. J., & Burrows, G. D. (2002). Group counseling for problem gambling. British Journal of Guidance & Counseling, 30, 145–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Comments on Project MATCH. (1999). Matching alcohol treatments to client heterogeneity. Addiction, 94(1), 31–34.Google Scholar
  10. Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Michaud, V. (2004). Comparisons between the south oaks gambling screen and a DSM-IV-based interview in a community survey of problem gambling. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 258–263.Google Scholar
  11. Dansereau, D. F., Dees, S. M., Greener, J. M., & Simpson, D. D. (1995). Node-link mapping and the evaluation of drug abuse counseling sessions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 9(3), 195–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dansereau, D. F., Joe, G. W., Dees, S. M., & Simpson, D. D. (1996). Ethnicity and the effects of mapping-enhanced drug abuse counseling. Addictive Behaviors, 21, 363–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dansereau, D. F., Joe, G. W., & Simpson, D. D. (1993). Node-link mapping: A visual representation strategy for enhancing drug abuse counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 40(4), 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dees, S. M., Dansereau, D. F., & Simpson, D. D. (1997). Mapping-enhanced drug abuse counseling: Urinalysis results in the first year of methadone treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 14(1), 45–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Evans, M., Kessler, D., Lewis, G., Peters, T. J., & Sharp, D. (2004). Assessing mental health in primary care research using standardized scales: Can it be carried out over the telephone? Psychological Medicine, 34(1), 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gomes, K., & Pascual-Leone, A. (2009). Primed for change: Facilitating factors in problem gambling treatment. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(1), 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Griffiths, M. D., & Macdonald, H. F. (1999). Counselling in the treatment of pathological gambling: An overview. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 27, 179–190.Google Scholar
  18. Hodgins, D. C., & Makarchuk, K. (2003). Trusting problem gamblers: Reliability and validity of self-reported gambling behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17(3), 244–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Joe, G. W., Dansereau, D. F., Pitre, U., & Simpson, D. D. (1997). Effectiveness of node-link mapping enhanced counseling for opiate addicts: A 12-month posttreatment follow-up. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 306–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Johnson, M. E., Fisher, D. G., Montoya, I., Booth, R., Rhodes, F., Anderson, M., et al. (2000). Reliability and validity of not-in-treatment drug users’ follow-up self-reports. AIDS and Behavior, 4(4), 373–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Korn, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (2004). Massachusetts Department of Public Health: An evidence-based treatment guide for clinicians. Retrieved February 25, 2006, from http://www.masscompulsivegambling.org/stuff/contentmgr/files/fc47f0095c626d286284aeec72d85d3c/miscdocs/practice_guidelines_draft__26_for_mccg.pdf.
  22. Ladouceur, R., Boisvert, J. M., & Dumont, J. (1994). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for adolescent pathological gamblers. Behavior Modification, 18, 230–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Lachance, S., Doucet, C., & Leblond, J. (2003). Group therapy for pathological gamblers: A cognitive approach. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 587–596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Lachance, S., Doucet, C., Leblond, J., et al. (2001). Cognitive treatment of pathological gambling. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 774–780.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lesieur, H. R. (1998). Costs and treatment of pathological gambling. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 556, 153–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1991). When lady luck loses: Women and compulsive gambling. In N. Van Den Bergh (Ed.), Feminists perspectives on addiction (pp. 181–197). New York: Springer Publishing.Google Scholar
  28. McConaghy, N., Blaszczynski, A. P., & Frankova, A. (1991). Comparisons of imaginal desensitization with other behavioral treatments of pathological gambling: A two- to nine-year follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 390–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Melville, C. L. (2000). Twelve step facilitation therapy manual: Modified for the treatment of pathological gambling. (Available from McNeese State University, Department of Psychology, Box 91895, Lake Charles, LA 70609.) Adapted from Nowinski, J., Baker, S., & Carroll, K. M. (1994). Twelve step facilitation therapy manual: A clinical research guide for therapists treating individuals with alcohol abuse and dependence. Project MATCH Monograph Series, Vol. 1. DHHS Publication No. 94-3722. Rockville, MD: NIAAA.Google Scholar
  30. Melville, C. L., Davis, C. S., & Matzenbacher, D. L. (2000). Three-step treatment for problem gambling using node-link mapping. Lake Charles, LA: McNeese State University.Google Scholar
  31. Melville, C. L., Davis, C. S., Matzenbacher, D. L., & Clayborne, J. (2004). Node-link mapping-enhanced group treatment for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 73–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller, W. R., Sovereign, R. G., & Krege, B. (1988). Motivational interviewing with problem drinkers II: The drinker’s check-up as a preventative intervention. Behavioural Psychotherapy, 19, 251–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. National Research Council. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  34. Oei, T. P. S., & Gordon, L. M. (2008). Psychosocial factors related to gambling abstinence and relapse in members of Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 91–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre. (2003, July 15). Gamblers anonymous. Retrieved February 25, 2006, from http://gamblingresearch.org/contentdetail.sz?cid=2096&pageid=881.
  36. Petry, N. M. (2005). Pathological gambling: Etiology, comorbidity, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Petry, N. M., Ammerman, Y., Bohl, J., Doersch, A., Gay, H., Kaden, R., et al. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for pathological gamblers. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(3), 555–567.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Petry, N. M., & Armentano, C. (1999). Prevalence, assessment, and treatment of pathological gambling: A review. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1021–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Pinto-Meza, A., Serrano-Blanco, A., Peñarrubia, M. T., Blanco, E., & Haro, J. M. (2005). Assessing depression in primary care with the PHQ-9: Can it be carried out over the telephone? Journal of General Internal Medicine, 20(8), 738–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Pitre, U., Dansereau, D. F., & Joe, G. W. (1996). Client education levels and the effectiveness of node-link maps. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 15(3), 27–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Project MATCH Research Group. (1997a). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH posttreatment drinking outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 58, 7–29.Google Scholar
  42. Project MATCH Research Group. (1997b). Project MATCH secondary a priori hypotheses. Addiction, 92, 1671–1698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Project MATCH Research Group. (1998). Matching alcoholism treatments to client heterogeneity: Project MATCH three-year drinking outcomes. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 22(6), 1300–1311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rosenthal, R. J., & Rugle, L. J. (1994). A psychodynamic approach to the treatment of pathological gambling: Part I. Achieving abstinence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 21–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Scodel, A. (1964). Inspirational group therapy: A study of gamblers anonymous. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 18, 1115–1125.Google Scholar
  46. Sobell, L. C., & Sobell, M. B. (1992). Timeline follow-back: A technique for assessing self-reported alcohol consumption. In R. Litten & J. Allen (Eds.), Measuring alcohol consumption (pp. 41–72). Totowa, NJ: The Humana Press Inc.Google Scholar
  47. Stewart, R. M., & Brown, R. (1988). An outcome study of gamblers anonymous. British Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 284–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sylvain, C., Ladouceur, R., & Boisvert, J. (1997). Cognitive and behavioral treatment of pathological gambling: A controlled study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 727–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Toneatto, T., & Dragonetti, R. (2008). Effectiveness of community-based treatment for problem gambling: A quasi-experimental evaluation of cognitive-behavioral vs. twelve-step therapy. The American Journal on Addictions, 17, 298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Toneatto, T., & Sobell, L. C. (1990). Pathological gambling treated with cognitive behavior therapy: A case report. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 497–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.McNeese State UniversityLake CharlesUSA
  2. 2.University of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA

Personalised recommendations