Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 15–33 | Cite as

Lottery Gambling: A Review

Review Paper

Abstract

This paper presents an exhaustive review of the literature on lottery gambling involving numbers games, lotto, and scratch cards. Results provide tentative answers to the question why people buy lotteries, and support the theory of judgment under uncertainty, cognitive theory of gambling, and theory of demand for gambles. Results also indicate some potential addictiveness of this form of gambling. Youths buy different forms of lotteries and the best predictor of their lottery purchases is their parents’ lottery participation. Contrary to the myth that a big lottery win will ruin the winners’ lives, lottery winners tend to be well-adjusted and their life quality seems to improve. Suggestions for future research are discussed.

Keywords

Lottery gambling Theory of judgment under uncertainty Cognitive theory of gambling Theory of demand for gambles Lotteries’ potential addictiveness Adolescent lottery gambling Life after winning lotteries 

References

  1. Adams, D. (2001). My ticket, my “self”: Lottery ticket number selection and the commodification and extension of the self. Sociological Spectrum, 21, 455–477.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2006). A test of the social cognitive model of lottery gambling in Thailand. International Gambling Studies, 6, 77–93.Google Scholar
  4. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., & Chanchalermporn, N. (2007). A test of social cognitive theory reciprocal and sequential effects: Hope, superstitious belief and environmental factors among lottery gamblers in Thailand. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 201–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., Chanchalermporn, N., & Phengpol, V. (2009). Adapting the DSM-IV and SOGS scales to measure gambling problems among two groups of Thai lottery gamblers. Paper presented at the 14th international conference on gambling and risk taking, May 25–29, 2009, Stateline, Nevada.Google Scholar
  6. Ariyabuddhiphongs, V., & Phengphol, V. (2008). Near miss, gambler’s fallacy and entrapment: Their influence on lottery gamblers in Thailand. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 295–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Arvey, R., Harpaz, I., & Liao, H. (2004). Work centrality and post-award work behavior of lottery winners. The Journal of Psychology, 138, 404–420.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Azmier, J. J. (2000). Canadian gambling behaviour and attitudes: Summary report. Calgary, AB Canada: Gambling in Canada Research Report No. 8. Available for free download from www.cwf.ca.
  9. Bakken, I. J., Gotestam, K. G., Grawe, R. W., Wenzel, H. G., & Oren, A. (2009). Gambling behavior and gambling problems in Norway 2007. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 50, 333–339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Balabanis, G. (2002). The relationship between lottery ticket and scratch-card buying behaviour, personality and other compulsive behaviours. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 2, 7–22.Google Scholar
  11. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  12. Bankrate.com. (2009). 8 lottery winners who lost their millions. MSN Money. Retrieved November 14, 2009, from http://;articles.moneycentral.msn.com/SavingandDebt/SaveMoney/8lotteryWinnersWh….
  13. Bar-Hillel, M., & Neter, E. (1996). Why are people reluctant to exchange lottery tickets? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 17–27.Google Scholar
  14. Blalock, G., Just, D. R., & Simon, D. H. (2007). Hitting the jackpot or hitting the skids. Entertainment, poverty, and the demand for state lotteries. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 66, 545–570.Google Scholar
  15. Brenner, G. A., & Lipeb, M. (1993). Brief report: The lottery player in Cameroon: An exploratory study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 185–190.Google Scholar
  16. Brickman, P., Coates, D., & Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery winners and accident victims: Is happiness relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 917–927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown, D. J., & Kaldenberg, D. O. (1992). Socio-economic status and playing the lotteries. Sociology & Social Research, 76, 161–167.Google Scholar
  18. Browne, B. A., & Brown, D. J. (2001). Predictors of lottery gambling among American college students. The Journal of Social Psychology, 134, 339–347.Google Scholar
  19. Bruyneel, S., Dewitte, S., Franses, P. H., & Dekimpe, M. G. (2006). Why consumers buy lottery tickets when the sun goes down on them. The depleting nature of weather-induced bad moods. Advances in Consumer Research, 33, 46–47.Google Scholar
  20. Casey, E. (2006). Domesticating gambling: Gender, caring and the UK National Lottery. Leisure Studies, 25, 3–16.Google Scholar
  21. Chapman, G. B., & Johnson, E. J. (1994). The limits of anchoring. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 7, 223–242.Google Scholar
  22. Clarke, D. (2005). Motivational differences between slot machine and lottery players. Psychological Reports, 96, 843–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1989a). Selling hope: State lotteries in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1989b). The demand for lottery products. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 2928.Google Scholar
  25. Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1990). On the economics of state lotteries. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 4, 105–119.Google Scholar
  26. Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1991). Lotteries in the real world. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, 4, 227–232.Google Scholar
  27. Clotfelter, C. T., & Cook, P. J. (1993). Notes: The “gambler’s fallacy” in lottery play. Management Science, 39, 1521–1525.Google Scholar
  28. Clotfelter, C. T., Cook, P. J., Edell, J. A., & Moore, M. (1999). State lotteries at the turn of the century: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Duke University. Retrieved November 20, 2009, from http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/ngisc/reports/lotfinal.pdf.
  29. Cook, M., McHenry, R., & Leigh, V. (1998). Personality and the national lottery. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 49–55.Google Scholar
  30. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1985). The NEO personality inventory manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  31. Coups, E., Haddock, G., & Webley, P. (1998). Correlates and predictors of lottery play in the United Kingdom. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 285–303.Google Scholar
  32. Darke, P. R., & Freedman, J. L. (1997). The belief in good luck scale. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 486–511.Google Scholar
  33. DeFuentes-Merillas, L., Koeter, M. W. J., Bethlehem, J., Schippers, G. M., & VanDenBrink, W. (2002). Are scratch cards addictive? The prevalence of pathological scratch card gambling among adult scratch card buyers in the Netherlands. Addiction, 98, 725–731.Google Scholar
  34. DeFuentes-Merillas, L., Koeter, M. W. J., Bethlehem, J., Schippers, G. M., & VanDenBrink, W. (2004). Temporal stability of pathological scratchcard gambling adult scratchcard buyers two years later. Addiction, 99, 117–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Doherty, D., Gerber, A. S., & Green, D. P. (2006). Personal income and attitudes toward redistribution: A study of lottery winners. Political Psychology, 27, 441–458.Google Scholar
  36. Eckblad, G. F., & von de Lippe, A. L. (1994). Norwegian lottery winners: Cautious realists. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 305–322.Google Scholar
  37. Faregh, N., & Leth-Steensen, C. (2009). Reflections on the voluntary self-exclusion of gamblers and the law-suites against Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 131–138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2003). Parental influences and social modeling of youth lottery participation. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 13, 361–377.Google Scholar
  39. Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2004a). Lottery participation by youth with gambling problems: Are lottery tickets a gateway to other gambling venues? International Gambling Studies, 4, 109–125.Google Scholar
  40. Felsher, J. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2004b). Lottery playing amongst youth: Implications for prevention and social policy. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 127–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Forrest, D., & Gulley, O. D. (2009). Participation and level of play in the UK National Lottery and correlation with spending on other modes of gambling. International Gambling Studies, 9, 165–178.Google Scholar
  42. Forrest, D., Gulley, O. D., & Simmons, R. (2008). The relationship between betting and lottery play. Economic Inquiry. doi:10.1111/j.1465-7295.2008.00123.x.
  43. Forrest, D., Simmons, R., & Chesters, N. (2002). Buying a dream: Alternative models of demand for lotto. Economic Inquiry, 40, 485–496.Google Scholar
  44. Freund, E. A., & Morris, I. L. (2005). The lottery and income inequality in the States. Social Science Quarterly, 86, 996–1012.Google Scholar
  45. Frost, R. O., Meagher, B. M., & Riskind, J. H. (2001). Obsessive-compulsive features in pathological lottery and scratch-ticket gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 5–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Furaker, B., & Hedenus, A. (2009). Gambling windfall decisions: Lottery winners and employment behavior. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 13, 1–15.Google Scholar
  47. Gardner, J., & Oswald, A. J. (2007). Money and mental wellbeing: A longitudinal study of medium-sized lottery wins. Journal of Health Economics, 26, 49–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldberg, L. R. (1992). The development of markers for the Big-Five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26–42.Google Scholar
  49. Gotestam, K. G., & Johansson, A. (2003). Brief report: Characteristics of gambling and problematic gambling in the Norwegian context. A DSM-IV-based telephone interview study. Addictive Behavior, 28, 189–197.Google Scholar
  50. Gribbin, D. W., & Bean, J. J. (2005). Adoption of state lotteries in the United States, with a closer look at Illinois. The Independent Review, X, 351–364.Google Scholar
  51. Griffiths, M. (2000). Scratch card gambling among adolescent males. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 79–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Griffiths, M., & Delfabbro, P. (2001). The biopsychosocial approach to gambling: Contextual factors in research and clinical interventions. E-Gambling. The Electronical Journal of Gambling Issues, 6(5). Retrieved July 16, 2009, from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issues/feature/.
  53. Griffiths, M., & Wood, R. (2001). The psychology of lottery gambling. International Gambling Studies, 1, 27–45.Google Scholar
  54. Grun, L., & McKeigue, P. (2000). Prevalence of excessive gambling before and after introduction of a national lottery in the United Kingdom: Another example of the single distribution theory. Addiction, 95, 959–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grusser, S. M., Plontzke, B., Albrecht, U., & Morsen, C. P. (2007). The addictive potential of lottery gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 19, 19–29.Google Scholar
  56. Guryan, J., & Kearney, M. S. (2008). Gambling at lucky stores: Empirical evidence from state lottery sales. The American Economic Review, 98, 45473.Google Scholar
  57. Guryan, J., & Kearney, M.S., (2009). Is lottery gambling addictive? Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Working Paper No. 14742.Google Scholar
  58. Haisley, E., Mostafa, R., & Loewenstein, G. (2008). Subjective relative income and lottery ticket purchases. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 21, 283–295.Google Scholar
  59. Hardoon, K. K., Baboushkin, H. R., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2001). Underlying cognitions in the selection of lottery tickets. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 749–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Hendriks, V. M., Meerkerk, G.-J., Van Oers, H. A. M., & Garretsen, H. F. L. (1997). The Dutch instant lottery: Prevalence and correlates of at-risk playing. Addiction, 92, 335–346.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Herman, J., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998). Children’s cognitive perceptions of 6/49 lottery tickets. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 227–244.Google Scholar
  62. Hing, N., & Breen, H. (2001). Profiling lady luck: An empirical study of gambling and problem gambling amongst female club members. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 47–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hira, T. K., & Monson, K. W. (2000). A social learning perspective of gambling behavior among college students at Iowa State University, USA. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, 24, 1–8.Google Scholar
  64. Holtgraves, T., & Skeel, J. (1992). Cognitive biases in playing the lottery: Estimating the odds and choosing the numbers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 934–952.Google Scholar
  65. Hraba, J., Mok, W., & Huff, D. (1990). Lottery play and problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 355–377.Google Scholar
  66. Jacobs, D. F. (2000). Juvenile gambling in North America: An analysis of long term trends and future prospects. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 119–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Jefferson, S., & Nicki, R. (2003). A new instrument to measure cognitive distortions in video lottery terminal users: The informational biases scales (IBS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 387–403.Google Scholar
  68. Jones, J. M. (2008). One in six Americans gamble on sports. Gallup Poll. Retrieved October 29, 2009, from http://www.gallup.com/poll/104086/One-Six-Americans-Gamble-Sports.aspx.
  69. Joukhador, J., Blaszczynski, A., & Maccallum, F. (2004). Superstitious beliefs in gambling among problem and non-problem gamblers: Preliminary data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 171–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kaizeler, M. J., & Faustino, H. (2008). Lottery sales and per-capita GDP: An inverted U relationship. Lisbon, Portugal: Technical University of Lisbon, School of Economics and Management. Working Paper No. WP 41/2008/DE/SOCIUS.Google Scholar
  71. Kaplan, H. R. (1987). Lottery winners: The myth and reality. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 3, 168–178.Google Scholar
  72. Kaplan, H. R. (1988). Gambling among lottery winners: Before and after the big score. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 171–182.Google Scholar
  73. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., & Giroux, I. (1998). Parents’ attitudes and knowledge regarding gambling among youths. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ladouceur, R., Mayrand, M., Gaboury, A., & St-Onge, M. (1987). Comportements des acheteurs de billets de lotteries passives et pseudo-actives: etude comparative. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement/Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 19, 266–274.Google Scholar
  75. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive therapy (pp. 89–120). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  76. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1998). The cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. In A. S. Bellack & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology (pp. 588–601). New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  77. Lam, D. (2007). An exploratory study of gambling motivations and their impact on the purchase frequencies of various gambling products. Psychology & Marketing, 24, 815–827.Google Scholar
  78. Landman, J., & Petty, R. (2000). “It could have been you”: How states exploit counterfactual thought to market lotteries. Psychology & Marketing, 17, 299–321.Google Scholar
  79. Lang, K., & Omori, M. (2009). Can demographic variables predict lottery and pari-mutuel losses? An empirical investigation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 171–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lange, M. A. (2001). “If you do not gamble, check this box”: Perceptions of gambling behaviors. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Langer, E. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311–328.Google Scholar
  82. Lau, C., & Kramer, L. (2005). The relativity of luck. About the life of lottery millionaires. Herbolzheim: Centaurus.Google Scholar
  83. Lee, Y.-K., & Chang, C.-T. (2008). A social landslide: Social inequalities of lottery advertising in Taiwan. Social Behavior and Personality, 36, 1423–1438.Google Scholar
  84. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A knew instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Lorenz, V. C. (1990). State lotteries and compulsive gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 383–396.Google Scholar
  86. Macauliffe, E. W. (2006). The state-sponsored lottery: A failure of policy and ethics. Public Integrity, 8, 367–379.Google Scholar
  87. MacKinnon, D. P. (2008). Introduction to statistical mediation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  88. MacKinnon, D. P., & Luecken, L. J. (2008). How and for whom? Mediation and moderation in health psychology. Health Psychology, 27, S99–S100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Matheson, V. A. (2001). When are state lotteries a good bet (revisited)? Eastern Economic Journal, 27, 55–70.Google Scholar
  90. McMullan, J. L., & Miller, D. (2009). Wins, winning and winners: The commercial advertising of lottery gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 273–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. McNeilly, D. P., & Burke, W. J. (2000). Late life gambling: The attitudes and behaviors of older adults. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16(4), 393–415.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. McNeilly, D. P., & Burke, W. J. (2001). Gambling as a social activity of older adults. International Journal for Aging and Human Development, 52(1), 19–28.Google Scholar
  93. Miyazaki, A. D., Brumbaugh, A. M., & Sprott, D. E. (2001). Promoting and countering consumer misconceptions of random events: The case of perceived control and state-sponsored lotteries. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 20, 254–267.Google Scholar
  94. Miyazaki, A. D., Langenderfer, J., & Sprott, D. E. (1999). Government-sponsored lotteries: Exploring purchase and nonpurchase motivations. Psychology & Marketing, 16, 1–20.Google Scholar
  95. Momper, S., Nandi, V., Ompad, D. C., Delva, J., & Galea, S. (2009). The prevalence and types of gambling among undocumented Mexican immigrants in New York City. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 49–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Namrata, R., & Oei, T. P. S. (2009). Factors associated with the severity of gambling problems in a community gambling treatment agency. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 124–137.Google Scholar
  97. Nelson, J. E., & Beggan, J. K. (2004). Self-serving judgments about winning the lottery. The Journal of Psychology, 138, 253–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Nissle, S., & Bschor, T. (2002). Winning the jackpot and depression: Money cannot buy happiness. International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice, 6, 183–186.Google Scholar
  99. Nyman, J. A. (2004). A theory of demand for gambles. Department of Economics Working Paper #322. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  100. Nyman, J. A., Welte, J. W., & Dowd, B. E. (2008). Something for nothing: A model of gambling behavior. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 2492–2504.Google Scholar
  101. Papoff, K. M., & Norris, J. E. (2009). Instant ticket purchasing by Ontario baby boomers: Increasing risk for problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 185–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Parsons, K., & Webster, D. (2000). The consumption of gambling in every life. Journal of Consumer Studies & Home Economics, 24, 263–271.Google Scholar
  103. Pelletier, M.-F., & Ladouceur, R. (2007). The effect of knowledge of mathematics on gambling behaviours and erroneous perceptions. International Journal of Psychology, 42, 134–140.Google Scholar
  104. Petry, N. M., & Mallya, S. (2004). Gambling participation and problems among employees at a university health center. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 155–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Piriya-rangsan, S., et al. (2004). The economics of gambling (3rd printing). Bangkok: Ruamduay-chuay-ahn.Google Scholar
  106. Plontzke, B., Albrecht, U., Thalemann, C., & Grusser, S. M. (2004). Forms of pathological gambling: Empirical research on consumers behaviour of sport betting and lottery participants. Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift, 154, 372–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pugh, P., & Webley, P. (2000). Adolescent participation in the U.K. National Lottery games. Journal of Adolescence, 23, 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Radecki, T. E. (1994). The sales of lottery tickets to minors in Illinois. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 213–218.Google Scholar
  109. Ranyard, R., & Charlton, J. P. (2006). Cognitive processes underlying lottery and sports gambling decisions: The role of state probabilities and background knowledge. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28, 234–254.Google Scholar
  110. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2002). Pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1009–1061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. (2004). Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Reid, R. L. (1986). The psychology of the near miss. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 32–39.Google Scholar
  113. Risen, J. L., & Gilovich, T. (2007). Another look at why people are reluctant to exchange lottery tickets. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 93, 12–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Rogers, P. (1998). The cognitive psychology of lottery gambling: A theoretical review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 111–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Rogers, P., & Webley, P. (2001). “It could be us!”: Cognitive and social psychological factors in UK National Lottery play. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 181–199.Google Scholar
  116. Scientific Games. (2009). Industry information/lottery industry. Retrieved October 28, 2009, from http://www.scigames.com/sections/industry-information/lottery-industry.aspx.
  117. Sevigny, S., & Ladoucer, R. (2003). Gamblers’ irrational thinking about chance events: The ‘double switching’ concept. International Gambling Studies, 3, 149–161.Google Scholar
  118. Shepherd, R.-M., Ghodse, H., & London, M. (1998). A pilot study examining gambling behaviour before and after the launch of the national lottery and scratch cards in the UK. Addiction Research, 6, 5–12.Google Scholar
  119. Snir, R., & Harpaz, I. (2002). To work or not to work: Nonfinancial employment commitment and the social desirability bias. The Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 635–644.Google Scholar
  120. Sprott, D. E., Brumbaugh, A. M., & Miyazaki, A. D. (2001). Motivation and ability as predictors of play behaviour in state-sponsored lotteries: An empirical assessment of psychological control. Psychology & Marketing, 18, 973–983.Google Scholar
  121. Staw, B. M. (1976). Knee-deep in big muddy: A study of escalating commitment to a chosen course of action. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 16, 27–44.Google Scholar
  122. Stucki, S., & Rihs-Middel, M. (2007). Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: An update. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 245–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Trevorrow, K., & Moore, S. (1998). The association between loneliness, social isolation and women’s electronic gaming machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14(3), 263–284.Google Scholar
  124. Turner, N. E., Macdonald, J., & Somerset, M. (2008). Life skills, mathematical reasoning and critical thinking: A curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 367–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1981). The framing of decisions and the psychology of choice. Science, 211, 453–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Vander Bilt, J., Dodge, H. H., Pandav, R., Shaffer, H. J., & Ganguli, M. (2004). Gambling participation and social support among older adults: A longitudinal community study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(4), 373–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Walker, G. J., Courneya, K. S., & Deng, J. (2006). Ethnicity, gender, and the theory of planned behavior: The case of playing the lottery. Journal of Leisure Research, 38, 224–248.Google Scholar
  129. Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 806–820.Google Scholar
  130. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M.-C. O., & Parker, J. C. (2002). Gambling participation in the U.S.—Results from a national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 313–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M.-C. O., & Parker, J. C. (2004). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 323–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Welte, J. W., Wieczorek, W. F., Barnes, G. M., & Tidwell, M.-C. O. (2006). Multiple risk factors for frequent and problem gambling: Individual, social and ecological. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 1548–1568.Google Scholar
  133. Wickwire, E. M., Jr., Whelan, J. P., West, R., Meyer, A., McCausland, C., & Luellen, J. (2007). Perceived availability, risks, and benefits of gambling among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 395–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Williams, R. J., & Connolly, D. (2006). Does learning about the mathematics of gambling change gambling behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 62–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Willmann, G. (1999). The history of lotteries. Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, California, USA.Google Scholar
  136. Wisman, J. D. (2006). State lotteries: Using state power to fleece the poor. Journal of Economic Issues, XL(4), 955–966.Google Scholar
  137. Wolfson, S., & Briggs, P. (2002). Locked into gambling: Anticipatory regret as a motivator for playing the National Lottery. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 1–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (1998). The acquisition, development and maintenance of lottery and scratch card gambling in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 265–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2002). Adolescent perceptions of the National Lottery and scratch cards: A qualitative study using group interviews. Journal of Adolescence, 25, 655–668.Google Scholar
  140. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2004). Adolescent lottery and scratch card players: Do their attitudes influence their gambling behaviour?. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 467–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2002). Adolescent accounts of the UK National Lottery and scratch cards: An analysis using Q-sorts. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 161–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Zeelenberg, M., & Pieters, R. (2004). Consequences of regret aversion in real life: The case of the Dutch postcode lottery. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 93, 155–168.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate SchoolBangkok UniversityBangkokThailand

Personalised recommendations