Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 99–113 | Cite as

Development of an Indigenous Inventory GMAB (Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors) for Chinese Gamblers: An Exploratory Study

  • Vivienne Y. K. Tao
  • Anise M. S. Wu
  • Shu Fai Cheung
  • Kwok Kit Tong
Original Paper

Abstract

Scale development in the extant gambling literature has been dominated by pathological gamblers, but the non- or sub-clinical gamblers have been overlooked. Moreover, most scales are predominantly based on Western samples; only a few of the scales have Chinese versions validated with Chinese samples. A rarely explored niche still exists for the development of an indigenous scale for Chinese gamblers. The current exploratory study made the first step towards such a direction by identifying factors through the construction of an indigenous Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behavior (GMAB) scale for Chinese gamblers. Preliminary items were generated primarily from focus group discussions. The items were administered through a telephone survey in which 791 randomly sampled gamblers participated. Exploratory factor analyses revealed (a) five dimensions of gambling motives, namely, self-worth, monetary gains, sensation seeking, boredom alleviation, and learning; (b) four dimensions of gambling attitudes, namely, luck and fate, attitudes toward negative consequences in gambling, techniques, and superstition; and (c) six dimensions of behavior, namely, impaired control in gambling, gambling involvement, arousal reaction, superstitious behavior, controlled gambling and casino exploration. Implications of the interplay among these factors and future research directions were discussed.

Keywords

Chinese Gambling Motives Attitudes Behaviors 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This research project was supported by the University of Macau RC Research Grant G030/06-07S/TYK/FSH and RG043/08-09S/TKK/FSH.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  2. Berry, J. W. (1989). Imposed etics-emics-derived etics: The operationalization of a compelling idea. International Journal of Psychology, 24(6), 721–735.Google Scholar
  3. Blaszczynski, A., Huynh, S., Dumlao, V. J., & Farrell, L. (1998). Problem gambling within a Chinese speaking community. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 359–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breen, R., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). “Chasing” in gambling behavior: Personality and cognitive determinants. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 1097–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung, F. M., & Cheung, S. F. (2003). Measuring personality and values across cultures: Imported versus indigenous measures. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 6, Chapter 5), (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~culture/Cheung.htm), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.
  7. Cheung, F. M., Leung, K., Zhang, J. X., Sun, H. F., Gan, Y. G., Song, W. Z., et al. (2001). Indigenous Chinese personality constructs: Is the Five-factor Model complete? Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 407–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ekblad, S. (1996). Ecological psychology in Chinese societies. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 379–392). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Fong, D. K., & Ozorio, B. (2005). Gambling participation and prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in a far-east gambling city: Macau. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 9, 15–28.Google Scholar
  10. Glorfeld, L. W. (1995). An improvement on Horn’s parallel analysis methodology for selecting the correct number of factors to retain. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55, 377–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hobson, J. S. (1994). Feng shui: Its impacts on the Asian hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 6(6), 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang, L. S., & Teng, C. I. (2009). Development of a Chinese superstitious belief scale. Psychological Reports, 104, 807–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kraus, S. J. (1995). Attitudes and the prediction of behavior: A meta-analysis of the empirical literature. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 57–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1998). Cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 6, 587–601.Google Scholar
  15. Lau, L. Y., & Ranyard, R. (2005). Chinese and English probabilistic thinking and risk taking in gambling. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36(5), 621–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Leung, K. (1996). The role of beliefs in Chinese culture. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 247–262). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Loo, J. M. Y., Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2008). Gambling among the Chinese: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1152–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Moore, S. M., & Ohtsuka, K. (1999). Beliefs about control over gambling among young people, and their relation to problem gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 13, 339–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. O’Connor, B. P. (2000). SPSS and SAS programs for determining the number of components using parallel analysis and Velicer’s MAP test. Behavior Research Methods, Instrumentation, and Computers, 32, 396–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, C. D., & Raylu, N. (2007). Validation of the Chinese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-C). Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, C. D., & Raylu, N. (2008). The relationship between gambling cognitions, psychological states, and gambling: A cross-cultural study of Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Papineau, E. (2005). Pathological gambling in Montreal’s Chinese community: An anthropological perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 157–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004). Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1114–1807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioural model of problem gambling: A Biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Simmons, L. C., & Schindler, R. M. (2003). Cultural superstitions and the price endings used in Chinese advertising. Journal of International Marketing, 11, 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Tang, C. S., Wu, A. M. S., & Tang, J. Y. C. (2007). Gender differences in characteristics of Chinese treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 145–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Walker, M. B. (1992). The psychology of gambling. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  28. Wong, I. L. J., & So, E. M. T. (2003). Prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Hong Kong. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1353–1354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vivienne Y. K. Tao
    • 1
  • Anise M. S. Wu
    • 1
  • Shu Fai Cheung
    • 1
  • Kwok Kit Tong
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences & HumanitiesUniversity of MacauMacaoChina

Personalised recommendations