Development of an Indigenous Inventory GMAB (Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behaviors) for Chinese Gamblers: An Exploratory Study
- 439 Downloads
Scale development in the extant gambling literature has been dominated by pathological gamblers, but the non- or sub-clinical gamblers have been overlooked. Moreover, most scales are predominantly based on Western samples; only a few of the scales have Chinese versions validated with Chinese samples. A rarely explored niche still exists for the development of an indigenous scale for Chinese gamblers. The current exploratory study made the first step towards such a direction by identifying factors through the construction of an indigenous Gambling Motives, Attitudes and Behavior (GMAB) scale for Chinese gamblers. Preliminary items were generated primarily from focus group discussions. The items were administered through a telephone survey in which 791 randomly sampled gamblers participated. Exploratory factor analyses revealed (a) five dimensions of gambling motives, namely, self-worth, monetary gains, sensation seeking, boredom alleviation, and learning; (b) four dimensions of gambling attitudes, namely, luck and fate, attitudes toward negative consequences in gambling, techniques, and superstition; and (c) six dimensions of behavior, namely, impaired control in gambling, gambling involvement, arousal reaction, superstitious behavior, controlled gambling and casino exploration. Implications of the interplay among these factors and future research directions were discussed.
KeywordsChinese Gambling Motives Attitudes Behaviors
This research project was supported by the University of Macau RC Research Grant G030/06-07S/TYK/FSH and RG043/08-09S/TKK/FSH.
- American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR). (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
- Berry, J. W. (1989). Imposed etics-emics-derived etics: The operationalization of a compelling idea. International Journal of Psychology, 24(6), 721–735.Google Scholar
- Cheung, F. M., & Cheung, S. F. (2003). Measuring personality and values across cultures: Imported versus indigenous measures. In W. J. Lonner, D. L. Dinnel, S. A. Hayes, & D. N. Sattler (Eds.), Online Readings in Psychology and Culture (Unit 6, Chapter 5), (http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~culture/Cheung.htm), Center for Cross-Cultural Research, Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington USA.
- Ekblad, S. (1996). Ecological psychology in Chinese societies. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 379–392). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fong, D. K., & Ozorio, B. (2005). Gambling participation and prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in a far-east gambling city: Macau. UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 9, 15–28.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1998). Cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. Comprehensive Clinical Psychology, 6, 587–601.Google Scholar
- Leung, K. (1996). The role of beliefs in Chinese culture. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of Chinese psychology (pp. 247–262). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Walker, M. B. (1992). The psychology of gambling. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar