Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 533–543 | Cite as

Direct and Indirect Influences of Fate Control Belief, Gambling Expectancy Bias, and Self-Efficacy on Problem Gambling and Negative Mood Among Chinese College Students: A Multiple Mediation Analysis

  • Catherine So-kum Tang
  • Anise M. S. Wu
Original Paper

Abstract

A multiple mediation model was proposed to integrate core concepts of the social axioms framework and the social cognitive theory in order to understand gambling behavior. It was hypothesized that the influence of general fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood would be mediated by gambling-specific beliefs. Data from 773 Chinese college recreational gamblers were collected. The bootstrapping procedure was used to test the multiple mediation hypotheses. Significant indirect effects of fate control belief on problem gambling and negative mood through two gambling-specific mediators were found. Gambling expectancy bias was a more salient mediator than gambling self-efficacy. Fate control belief was also found to have a significant direct effect on negative mood. In general, a high level of general fate control belief was related to greater gambling expectancy bias and lower self-efficacy in resisting gambling, which were in turn related to problem gambling and negative mood. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed.

Keywords

Fate control and gambling Cognitive bias and gambling Self-efficacy and gambling Gambling and negative mood Cognitive mediators and gambling 

References

  1. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentive perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathway model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bond, M. H., Leung, K., Au, A., Tong, K. K., & Chemonges-Nielson, Z. (2004). Combining social axioms with values in predicting social behaviors. European Journal of Personality, 18, 177–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Casey, L. M., Oei, T. P. S., Melville, K. M., Bourke, E., & Newcombe, P. A. (2008). Measuring self-efficacy in gambling: The Gambling Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24, 229–246.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheung, M., Leung, K., & Au, K. (2007). Evaluating multilevel models in cross-cultural research: An illustration with social axioms. Journal of Cross-cultural Psychology, 37, 522–541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Getty, H. A., Watson, J., & Frisch, G. R. (2000). A comparison of depression and styles of coping in male and female GA members and controls. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 377–391.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hasking, P. A., & Oei, T. P. (2007). Alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy and coping in an alcohol-dependent sample. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 99–113.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hui, V. K., Bond, M. H., & Ng, T. S. W. (2007). General beliefs about the world as defensive mechanisms against death anxiety. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 54, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Joiner, T., Perez, M., Wagner, K., Berenson, A., & Marquina, G. (2001). On fatalism, pessimism, and depressive symptoms among Mexican-American and other adolescents attending an obstetrics-gynecology clinic. Behavior Research and Therapy, 39, 887–896.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkoskvis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioral therapies (pp. 89–120). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  12. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Leung, K., & Bond, M. H. (2004). Social axioms: A model of social beliefs in multi-cultural perspective. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 119–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Loo, J. M. Y., Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2008). Gambling among the Chinese: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1152–1166.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lopez Viets, V. C., & Miller, W. R. (1997). Treatment approaches for pathological gamblers. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 689–702.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Lovibond, P., & Lovibond, S. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behavioral Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., Hoffman, J. M., West, S. G., & Sheets, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7, 83–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. MacKinnon, D. P., Lockwood, C. M., & Williams, J. (2004). Confidence limits for indirect effect: Distribution of the product and resampling methods. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 39, 99–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. May, R., Whelan, J., Steenbergh, T., & Meyers, A. (2003). The Gambling Self-Efficacy Questionnaire: An initial psychometric evaluation. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19, 339–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Morasco, B. J., Weinstock, J., Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2007). Psychological factors that promote and inhibit pathological gambling. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 14, 208–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2007). Validation of the Chinese version of the Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS-C). Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2008). Relationship between gambling cognitions, psychological states, and gambling: A cross-cultural study of Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 39, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Preacher, K., & Hayes, A. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 879–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2002). Pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1009–1061.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004a). The Gambling Related Cognitions Scale (GRCS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Addiction, 99, 757–769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004b). Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Roberts, R., Roberts, C., & Chen, I. (2000). Fatalism and risk of adolescent depression. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 36, 239–252.Google Scholar
  28. Rotter, J. (1966). Generalized expectancies of internal versus external control reinforcement. Psychological Monograph, 80 (Whole no. 609).Google Scholar
  29. Rounds-Bryant, J. L., Flynn, P. M., & Craighead, L. W. (1997). Relationship between self-efficacy perceptions and in-treatment drug use among regular cocaine users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 23, 383–395.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Scherrer, J. F., Xian, H., Shah, K. R., Volherg, R., Slutske, W., & Eisen, S. A. (2005). Effect of genes, environment, and lifetime co-occurring disorders on health-related quality of life in problem and pathological gamblers. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 677–683.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1993). Measurement of perceived self-efficacy: Psychometric scales for cross-cultural research. Berlin: Freie Universitat.Google Scholar
  32. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Singelis, T., Hubbard, C., Her, P., & An, S. (2003). Convergent validation of the social axiom survey. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 269–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Steenbergh, T., Meyers, A., May, R., & Whelan, J. (2002). Development and validation of the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 16, 143–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Stinchfield, R. (2002). Reliability, validity and classification accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sylvain, C., Ladouceur, R., & Boisvert, J. (1997). Cognitive and behavior treatment of pathological gambling: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 65, 727–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Symes, B. A., & Nicki, R. M. (1997). A preliminary consideration of cue-exposure, response-prevention treatment for pathological gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 145–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Tang, C., Au, W., Schwarzer, R., & Schmitz, G. (2001). Mental health outcomes of job stress among Chinese teachers: Role of stress resource factors and burnout. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22, 887–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tang, C., Wu, A., & Tang, J. (2007). Gender differences in characteristics of Chinese treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 145–156.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Tavares, H., Zilberman, M., & de-Guebaly, N. (2003). Are there cognitive and behavioral approaches specific to the treatment of pathological gambling? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48, 22–27.Google Scholar
  41. Toneatto, T., & Sobell, L. C. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 1593–1604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Weinstock, J., Whelan, J., Meyers, A., & McCausland, C. (2007). The performance of two pathological gambling screens in college students. Assessment, 14, 399–407.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacaoMacaoChina

Personalised recommendations