Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 623–638 | Cite as

The Victorian Gambling Screen: Reliability and Validation in a Clinical Population

  • B. Tolchard
  • M. W. Battersby
Original Paper

Abstract

There is a need to establish reliability and the various forms of validity in all measures in order to feel confident in the use of such tools across a wide diversity of settings. The aim of this study is to describe the reliability and validity of the Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) and in particular one of the sub-scales (Harm to Self—HS) in a specialist problem gambling treatment service in Adelaide, Australia. Sixty-seven consecutive gamblers were assessed using a previously validated clinical interview and the VGS (Ben-Tovim et al., The Victorian Gambling Screen: project report. Victorian Research Panel, Melbourne, 2001). The internal consistency of the combined VGS scales had a Cronbach’s alpha of .85 with the HS scale .89. There was satisfactory evidence of convergent validity which included moderate correlations with another measure of gambling—the South Oaks Gambling Screen. There were also moderate correlations with other measures of psychopathology. Finally, how the VGS may best be used in clinical settings is discussed.

Keywords

Gambling measurement Victorian Gambling Screen Problem gambling Treatment 

References

  1. Abbott, M., & Volberg, R. A. (2006). The measurement of adult problem and pathological gambling. International Gambling Studies, 6(2), 175–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder (4 ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Baldo, V., Cristofoletti, M., Majori, S., Cibin, M., Peron, C., Dal Zotto, A., et al. (2006). Relationship between pathological gambling, alcoholism and drug addiction. Annali di Igiene, 18, 147–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Battersby, M. W., Thomas, L. J., Tolchard, B., & Esterman, A. (2002). The South Oaks Gambling Screen: A review with reference to Australian use. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 257–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Battersby, M. W., Tolchard, B., Scurrah, M., & Thomas, L. J. (2006). Suicide ideation and behaviour in people with pathological gambling attending a treatment service. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, 233–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beck, A. T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: Psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(6), 893–897.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T., Ward, C., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ben-Tovim, D., Esterman, A., Tolchard, B., & Battersby, M. W. (2001). The Victorian Gambling Screen: Project report. Melbourne: Victorian Research Panel.Google Scholar
  9. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Shaffer, H. (2004). A science-based framework for responsible gambling: The Reno model. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(3), 301–317.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Delfabbro, P., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2006). Psychosocial correlates of problem gambling in Australian students. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 587–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dickerson, M. G., & O’Connor, J. (2006). Gambling as an addictive behaviour: Impaired control, harm minimisation, treatment and prevention. Cambridge: University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dickerson, M. G., McMillen, J., Hallebone, E., Volberg, R., & Wooley, R. (1997). Definition and incidence of problem gambling including the socio-economic distribution. Melbourne, Australia: Victorian Casino and Gaming Authority.Google Scholar
  13. Doehnert, D. (2003). Recognizing problem gambling in primary care. Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants, 16, 40–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Erickson, L., Molina, C. A., Ladd, G. T., Pietrzak, R. H., Petry, N. M., & Erickson, L. (2005). Problem and pathological gambling are associated with poorer mental and physical health in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 754–759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA).Google Scholar
  16. Goodyear-Smith, F., Arroll, B., Kerse, N., Sullivan, S., Coupe, N., Tse, S., et al. (2006). Primary care patients reporting concerns about their gambling frequently have other co-occurring lifestyle and mental health issues. British Medical Council Family Practice, 7, 25–30.Google Scholar
  17. Henderson, M. J. (2004). Psychological correlates of comorbid gambling in psychiatric outpatients: A pilot study. Substance Use and Misuse, 39, 1341–1352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson, E. E., Hamer, R. M., Nora, R. M., Tan, B., Eistenstein, N., & Englehart, C. (1998). The lie/bet questionnaire for screening pathological gamblers. Psychological Reports, 80, 83–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Chevalier, R. S., Sévigny, S., & Hamel, D. (2005). Prevalence of pathological gambling in Quebec in 2002. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 451–456.Google Scholar
  20. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Lachance, S., Doucet, C., Leblond, J., et al. (2001). Cognitive treatment of pathological gambling. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 774–780.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2004). Gambling and suicidality in treatment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 711–714.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Lesieur, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. J. (1991). Pathological gambling: A review of the literature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7, 5–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lynch, W. J., Maciejewski, P. K., & Potenza, M. N. (2004). Psychiatric correlates of gambling in adolescents and young adults grouped by age at gambling onset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1116–1122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. McCready, J., & Adlaf, E. (2006). Performance and enhancement of the Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI): Report and recommendations. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute.Google Scholar
  26. McKenzie, R. (2008). Hypnotherapy for gambling addiction. Retrieved October 23, 2008, from http://www.richardmackenzie.co.uk/gambling.htm.
  27. McMillen, J., & Wenzel, M. (2006). Measuring problem gambling: Assessment of three prevalence screens. International Gambling Studies, 6, 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mundt, J. C., Marks, I. M., Shear, M. K., & Greist, J. H. (2002). The work and social adjustment scale: A simple measure of impairment in functioning. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 461–464.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Neal, P. N., Delfabbro, P. H., & O’Neil, M. G. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: Towards a national definition. Melbourne: Gambling Research Australia.Google Scholar
  30. Newman, S. C., & Thompson, A. H. (2003). A population-based study of the association between pathological gambling and attempted suicide. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 33, 80–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. O’Connor, J., & Dickerson, M. G. (2003). Impaired control over gambling in gaming machine and off-course gamblers. Addiction, 98, 53–60.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Petry, N. M. (2005). Pathological gambling: Etiology, co-morbidity, and treatment. Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries, report no. 10. Canberra: AusInfo.Google Scholar
  34. Rishel, C. W., Greeno, C. G., Marcus, S. C., Shear, M. K., & Anderson, C. (2005). Use of the child behavior checklist as a diagnostic screening tool in community mental health. Research on Social Work Practice, 3, 180–194.Google Scholar
  35. Rodgers, B., Caldwell, T., & Butterworth, P. (2009). Measuring gambling participation. Addiction, 104(7), 1065–1069.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Slutske, W. S. (2006). Natural recovery and treatment-seeking in pathological gambling: Results of two U.S. national surveys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 297–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Stinchfield, R. (2003). Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of a measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 180–182.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Stinchfield, R., Govoni, R., & Frisch, G. R. (2007). A review of screening and assessment instruments for problem and pathological gambling. In D. Smith, G. Hodgins, & R. Williams (Eds.), Research and measurement issues in gambling studies (pp. 180–213). London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  39. Stinchfield, R., & Winters, K. C. (1998). Gambling and problem gambling among youth. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences, 556, 172–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Strong, D. R., & Kahler, C. W. (2007). Evaluation of the continuum of gambling problems using the DSM-IV. Addiction, 102, 713–721.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sullivan, S. (1999). Development of the “EIGHT” problem gambling screen: Auckland Medical School. New Zealand: Auckland.Google Scholar
  42. Svetieva, E., & Walker, M. (2008). Inconsistency between concept and measurement: The Canadian Problem Gambling Index (CPGI). Journal of Gambling Issues, 22, 157–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Toce-Gerstein, M., Gerstein, D. R., & Volberg, R. A. (2003). A hierarchy of gambling disorders in the community. Addiction, 98(12), 1661–1672.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Toce-Gerstein, M., & Volberg, R. A. (2004). The NODS-CLiP: A new brief screen for pathological gambling. Paper presented at the 17th National Conference on Problem Gambling, Louisville, KY.Google Scholar
  45. Tolchard, B., & Battersby, M. W. (1996). The effect of treatment of pathological gamblers referred to a behavioural psychotherapy unit: II outcome of three kinds of behavioural intervention. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Conference of the National Association for Gambling Studies, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  46. Tolchard, B., & Battersby, M. W. (2000). Nurse behavioural psychotherapy and pathological gambling: An Australian perspective. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 7, 335–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Tolchard, B., Thomas, L. J., & Battersby, M. W. (2006). Single-session exposure therapy for problem gambling: A single-case experimental design. Behaviour Change, 23, 148–155.Google Scholar
  48. Van Buuren, S., Eyres, S., Tennant, A., & Hopman-Rock, M. (2005). Improving comparability of existing data by response conversion. Journal of Official Statistics, 21, 53–72.Google Scholar
  49. Walker, M., & Ladouceur, R. (1992). The psychology of gambling. New York: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  50. Williams, J. W., Noël, P. H., Cordes, J. A., Ramirez, G., & Pignone, M. (2002). Is this patient clinically depressed? Journal of the American Medical Association, 287, 1160–1170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Health and Human SciencesUniversity of EssexColchesterUK
  2. 2.Flinders Human Behaviour and Health Research Unit, School of MedicineFlinders UniversityAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations