The Convergence of Gambling and Digital Media: Implications for Gambling in Young People

Abstract

Adolescents’ use of the Internet and other digital media for the purpose of gambling represents a serious concern in modern society. This paper overviews some of the available monetary and non-monetary forms of gambling within new digital and online media and monetary forms of games with gambling-like experiences. With reference to current psychological knowledge on the risk factors that promote adolescent gambling, it is suggested that new gambling technologies may: (a) make gambling more accessible and attractive to young people, (b) may promote factually incorrect information about gambling, (c) provide an easy escape from real world problems such as depression and social isolation, (d) create a gambling environment that easily facilitates peer pressures to gamble, (e) ease parental transmission of gambling attitudes and beliefs, and (f) make gambling more ubiquitous and socially acceptable. The unique risks of Internet gambling for young people are critically discussed, as well as the lack of restricted classification for video games and other media that feature interactive, non-monetary forms of gambling.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Abbott, M. W. (2007). Situational factors that affect gambling behavior. In G. Smith, D. Hodgins, & R. Williams (Eds.), Research and measurement issues in gambling studies (pp. 251–278). New York: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Barnes, G. M., Welte, J. W., Hoffman, J. H., & Dincheff, B. A. (1999). Gambling and alcohol use among youth: Influences of demographic, socialization, and individual factors. Addictive Behaviors, 24, 749–767.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Bell, T. W. (1999). Internet gambling: Popular, inexorable, and (eventually) legal. Policy Analysis No. 336. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Brown, R. I. F. (1989). Gaming, gambling, risk-taking, addictions and a developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships. In J. Klabberg, D. Croowell, H. de Jong, & W. Scheper (Eds.), Simulation gaming. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Castronova, E. (2005). Synthetic worlds: The business and culture of online games. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. de Freitas, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2008). The convergence of gaming practices with other media forms: What potential for learning? A review of the literature. Learning, Media and Technology, 33, 11–20.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Delfabbro, P. H., & Thrupp, L. (2003). The social determinants of youth gambling in South Australian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 313–330.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Derevenksy, J., & Gupta, R. (2007). Internet gambling amongst adolescents: A growing concern. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 5, 93–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Fisher, S. (1993). Gambling and pathological gambling in adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 277–288.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Griffiths, M. D. (1999). Gambling technologies: Prospects for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 1, 265–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Griffiths, M. D. (2000). Parents are right to worry about screenagers. The Sunday Post, May 7, 30–31.

  13. Griffiths, M. D. (2002). Gambling and gaming addictions in adolescence. Leicester: British Psychological Society/Blackwells.

    Google Scholar 

  14. Griffiths, M. D. (2003a). Internet gambling: Issues, concerns, and recommendations. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6, 557–568.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Griffiths, M. D. (2003b). Adolescent gambling: Risk factors and implications for prevention, intervention, and treatment. In D. Romer (Ed.), Reducing adolescent risk: Toward an integrated approach (pp. 223–238). London: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Griffiths, M. D. (2004). Interactive television gambling: Should we be concerned? World Online Gambling Law Report, 3(3), 11–12.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Griffiths, M. D. (2005). Does advertising of gambling increase gambling addiction? International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 3(2), 15–25.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Griffiths, M. D. (2006). Interactive television and gaming. World Online Gambling Law Report, 5(2), 12–13.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Griffiths, M. D. (2007a). Mobile phone gambling. In D. Taniar (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mobile computing & commerce (pp. 553–556). Pennsylvania: Information Science Reference.

    Google Scholar 

  20. Griffiths, M. D. (2007b). Interactive television quizzes as gambling: A cause for concern? Journal of Gambling Issues, 20, 269–276.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Griffiths, M. D. (2008a). Convergence of gambling and gaming: Implications. World Online Gambling Law Report, 2, 37–42.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Griffiths, M. D. (2008b). Online ‘penny auction’ sites: Regulation needed. E-Finance & Payments Law & Policy, 2(12), 14–16.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Gambling in Great Britain. In G. Meyer, T. Hayer, & M. D. Griffiths (Eds.), Problem gaming in Europe: Challenges, prevention, and interventions (pp. 103–121). New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Griffiths, M. D., Davies, M. N. O., & Chappell, D. (2004). Online computer gaming: A comparison of adolescent and adult gamers. Journal of Adolescence, 27, 87–96.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, J. (2002). The social impact of internet gambling. Social Science Computer Review, 3, 312–320.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, J. (2009). Adolescent gambling on the Internet: A review. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health (in press).

  27. Griffiths, M. D., & Sutherland, I. (1998). Adolescent gambling and drug use. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 423–427.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Griffiths, M. D., Wardle, J., Orford, J., Sproston, K., & Erens, B. (2009). Socio-demographic correlates of internet gambling: findings from the 2007 British Gambling Prevalence Survey. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 12, 199–202.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Griffiths, M. D., & Wood, R. T. A. (2000). Risk factors in adolescence: The case of gambling, videogame playing, and the Internet. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 199–225.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Griffiths, M. D., & Wood, R. T. A. (2001). The psychology of lottery gambling. International Gambling Studies, 1, 27–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Griffiths, M. D., & Wood, R. T. A. (2007). Adolescent Internet gambling: Preliminary results of a national survey. Education and Health, 25, 23–27.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Gupta, R., & Derevenksy, J. (1998). Adolescent gambling behavior: A prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 319–345.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (2008). A treatment approach for adolescents with gambling problems. In M. Zangeneh, A. Blaszczynski, & N. Turner (Eds.), In the pursuit of winning. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hardoon, K. K., & Derevenksy, J. (2002). Child and adolescent gambling behavior: Current knowledge. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 263–281.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Hardoon, K. K., & Derevensky, J. L. (2001). Social influences involved in children’s gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 191–215.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Harper, A. (2007). Pay-per-kill shooters combine online gambling with gaming. The Guardian (Technology Supplement), November 22, 3.

  37. Ipsos MORI. (2009). British Survey of Children, the National Lottery and Gambling 2008–09: Report of a quantitative survey. London: National Lottery Commission.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Jackson, A. C., Dowling, N., Thomas, S. A., Bond, L., & Patton, G. (2008). Adolescent gambling behaviour and attitudes: A prevalence study and correlates in an Australian population. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 325–352.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., Singer, R. D., Widaman, K., Little, T., & Veizades, J. (1989). Children of problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 261–268.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Johansson, A., & Gotestam, K. G. (2004). Problems with computer games without monetary reward: Similarity to pathological gambling. Psychological Reports, 95, 641–650.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Ladouceur, R., & Mireault, C. (1988). Gambling behaviors among high school students in the Quebec area. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 3–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ladouceur, R., Vitaro, F., Cote, M. A., & Dumont, M. (2001, June). Parents’ attitudes, knowledge, and behavior towards gambling. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the National Council on Problem Gambling, Seattle, WA.

  44. Lesieur, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. J. (1991). Pathological gambling: A review of the literature (prepared for the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on DSM-IV Committee on disorders of impulse control not elsewhere classified). Journal of Gambling Studies, 7, 5–39.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. McBride, J., & Derevensky, J. (2009). Internet gambling behaviour in a sample of online gamblers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7, 149–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. McMillen, J., & Grabosky, P. (1998). Trends and issues in crime and criminal justice. No.88: Internet gambling. Canberra, ACT: Australian Institute of Criminology.

    Google Scholar 

  47. Meyer, G., Hayer, T., & Griffiths, M. D. (2009). Problem gaming in Europe: Challenges, prevention, and interventions. New York: Springer.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Monaghan, S., Derevensky, J., & Sklar, A. (2008). Impact of gambling advertisements on children and adolescents: Policy recommendations to minimize harm. International Gambling Studies, 22, 252–274.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Moody, E. J. (2001). Internet use and its relationship to loneliness. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4, 393–401.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  50. Petry, N. M. (2006). Internet gambling: An emerging concern in family practice medicine? Family Practice, 23, 421–426.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Poulin, C. (2000). Problem gambling among adolescent students in the Atlantic provinces of Canada. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 53–78.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Rich, M. (2007). Pulling the plug on entertainment industry ratings: In reply. Pediatrics, 119, 1261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Rubin, J., & Brockner, J. (1975). Factors affecting entrapment in waiting situations: The Rosencrantz and Guildenstern effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 1054–1063.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Selnow, G. W. (1984). Playing videogames: The electronic friend. Journal of Communication, 34, 148–156.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Sevigny, S., Cloutier, M., Pelletier, M., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). Internet gambling: Misleading payout rates during the “demo” period. Computers in Human Behaviour, 21, 153–158.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (1996). Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 193–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Smeaton, M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2004). Internet gambling and social responsibility: An exploratory study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 49–57.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Thompson, K. M., Tepichin, K., & Haninger, K. (2006). Content and ratings of mature-rated video games. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 160, 402–410.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2004). Adolescent lottery and scratchcard players: Do their attitudes influence their gambling behaviour? Journal of Adolescence, 27, 467–475.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Yeoman, T., & Griffiths, M. D. (1996). Adolescent machine gambling and crime. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 183–188.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Young, K. S., & Rogers, R. C. (1998). The relationship between depression and Internet addiction. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 1, 25–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel King.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

King, D., Delfabbro, P. & Griffiths, M. The Convergence of Gambling and Digital Media: Implications for Gambling in Young People. J Gambl Stud 26, 175–187 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10899-009-9153-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Digital media
  • Convergence
  • Adolescent gambling