Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 489–502 | Cite as

Poker Mania and Problem Gambling: A Study of Distorted Cognitions, Motivation and Alexithymia

Original Paper

Abstract

This study examines the relationships between distorted cognitions, motivation, and alexithymia on problem gambling in poker players (n = 96). Respondents completed questionnaires containing the Canadian Problem Gambling Index, Gambling Motivation Scale, Gambler’s Beliefs Questionnaire, and Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. The results suggest that problem gambling is significantly related to distorted cognitions, non-self-determined motivation, and difficulty identifying feelings. Implications are drawn for the development of more relevant intervention, prevention, and treatment strategies.

Keywords

Poker playing Gambling Alexithymia Distorted cognitions Motivation 

References

  1. Bagby, R. M., Parker, J. D. A., & Taylor, G. J. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale-I. Item selection and cross-validation of the factor structure. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38(1), 23–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of pathological and problem gambling. Addictions, 97(5), 487–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blaszczynski, A., Walker, M., Sagris, A., & Dickerson, M. (1997). Psychological aspects of gambling behaviour. Retrieved January 12, 2007, from, The Australian Psychological Society Web site http://www.psychology.org.au/publications/position_paper/gambling/.
  4. Briggs, J. R., Goodin, B. J., & Nelson, T. (1996). Pathological gamblers and alcoholics: Do they share the same addiction? Addictive Behaviors, 21, 515–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brown, J. D., & Smart, S. A. (1991). The self and social conduct: Linking self-representations to prosocial behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(3), 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chantal, Y., & Vallerand, R. J. (1996). Skill versus luck: A motivational analysis of gambling involvement. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), 407–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chantal, Y., Vallerand, R. J., & Vallieres, E. F. (1994). Construction et validation de l’Echelle de motivation relative auz jeux de hassard et d’argent. Loisir & Societe, 17, 189–212.Google Scholar
  8. Chantal, Y., Vallerand, R. J., & Vallieres, E. (1995). Motivation and gambling involvement. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135(6), 755–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Corcos, M., Guilbaud, O., Speranza, M., Patermiti, S., Laos, G., Stephan, P., et al. (2000). Alexithymia and depression in eating disorders. Psychiatry Research, 93, 263–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Corey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counselling and psychotherapy (7th ed.). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.Google Scholar
  11. Deci, E. L. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18(1), 105–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deci, E. L. (1980). The psychology of self-determination. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath and Company.Google Scholar
  13. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  14. Delfabbro, P. (2004). The stubborn logic of regular gamblers: Obstacles and Dilemmas in cognitive gambling research. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(1), 1–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dickerson, M. G. (1993). Internal and external determinants of persistent gambling: Problems in generalising from one form of gambling to another. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 225–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Echeburúa, E., Báez, C., & Fernández-Monalvo, J. (1996). Comparative effectiveness of three therapeutic modalities in the psychological treatment of pathological gambling: Long-term outcome. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24, 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (Eds.). (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: User Manual. Report to the Canadian Inter-Provincial Task Force on Problem Gambling, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  18. Frankl, V. E. (1967). Psychotherapy and Existentialism. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  19. Harackiewicz, J. M., Manderlink, G., & Sansone, C. (1984). Rewarding pinball wizardry: Effects of evaluation and cue value on intrinsic interest. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haviland, M. G., Hendryx, M. S., Shaw, D. G., & Henry, J. P. (1994). Alexithymia in women and men hospitalized for psychoactive substance dependence. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 35, 124–128.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Hayano, D. M. (1982). Poker faces: The life and work of professional card players. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  22. Joukhador, J., McCallum, F., & Blaszczynski, A. (2003). Differences in cognitive distortions between problem gambling and social gamblers. Psychological Reports, 92, 1203–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Joukhadour, J., Blaszczynski, A., & MacCallum, F. (2004). Superstitious beliefs in gambling among problem and non-problem gamblers: Preliminary data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 171–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kahn, E. (1999). A critique of nondirectivity in the person-centered approach. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 33, 94–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keren, G., & Lewis, C. (1994). The two fallacies of gamblers: Type I and Type II. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 60, 75–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. King, K. K. (1990). Neutralizing marginally deviant behavior: Bingo players and superstition. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6, 43–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ladouceur, R., Dube, D., & Bujold, A. (1994). Prevalence of pathological gambling and related problems among college students in Quebec metropolitan area. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 289–293.Google Scholar
  28. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkosvis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioural therapies (pp. 89–120). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Langer, E. J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lumley, M. A., & Roby, K. J. (1995). Alexithymia and Pathological Gambling. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 63, 201–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MacKillop, J., Anderson, E. J., Castelda, B. A., Mattson, R. E., & Donovick, P. J. (2006). Convergent validity of measures of cognitive distortions, impulsivity, and time perspective with pathological gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 19–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. May, R. K., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A. W., & Steenbergh, T. A. (2005). Gambling-related irrational beliefs in the maintenance and modification of gambling behaviour. International Gambling Studies, 5(2), 155–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McMillen, J., & Wenzel, M. (2006). Measuring problem gambling: Assessment of three prevalence screens. International Gambling Studies, 6(2), 147–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ocean, G., & Smith, G. J. (1993). Social reward, conflict and commitment: A theoretical model of gambling behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 321–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parker, J. D. A., Wood, L. M., Bond, B. J., & Shaughnessy, P. (2005). Alexithymia in young adulthood: A risk factor for pathological gambling. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 74, 51–55.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Rae, D., & Haw, J. (2005). The effect of depression and perceived skill on anticipated emotions and persistence in of-course betting. International Gambling Studies, 5, 199–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan, R. M. (1995). Psychological needs and the facilitation of integrative processes. Journal of Personality, 63(3), 397–427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 54–67.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sharpe, L., & Tarrier, N. (1992). A cognitive behavioural treatment approach for problem gambling. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 6, 193–203.Google Scholar
  41. Sharpe, L., & Tarrier, N. (1993). Towards a cognitive-behavioral theory of problem gambling. British Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 407–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Smith, G. J. (1992). Sucker bet or sure thing: A critical analysis of sports lotteries. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 331–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steenbergh, T. A., Meyers, A. W., May, R. K., & Whelan, J. P. (2002). Development and validation of the Gamblers’ Beliefs Questionnaire. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16(2), 143–149.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Steenbergh, T. A., Whelan, J. P., Meyers, A. W., May, R. K., & Floyd, K. (2004). Impact of warning and brief intervention messages on knowledge of gambling risk, irrational beliefs and behaviour. International Gambling Studies, 4(1), 3–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Steiger, J. H. (1980). Tests for comparing elements of a correlation matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stuart, S., & Robertson, M. (2003). Interpersonal Psychotherapy: A Clinician’s Guide. London: Arnold.Google Scholar
  47. Sylvain, C., Ladouceur, R., & Boisvert, J.-M. (1997). Cognitive and behavioural treatment of pathological gambling: A controlled study. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 65, 727–732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taylor, G. J., Bagby, R. M., & Parker, J. D. A. (1991). The alexithymia construct: A potential paradigm for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatics, 32, 153–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Taylor, G. J., Parker, J. D. A., Bagby, R. M., & Bourke, M. P. (1996). Relationships between alexithymia and psychological characteristics associated with eating disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 41, 561–568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Toneatto, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 1593–1604.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Toneatto, T. (2005). A perspective on problem gambling treatment: Issues and challenges. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21(1), 73–78.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwood, K., Dragonetti, R., & Tsanos, A. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 253–266.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Toneatto, T., & Millar, G. (2004). Assessing and treating problem gambling: Empirical status and promising trends. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 517–525.Google Scholar
  54. Wagenaar, W. A. (1988). Paradoxes of gambling behavior. London: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  55. Wagenaar, W. A., & Keren, G. B. (1988). Chance and luck are not the same. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 1, 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Walker, M. B. (1992). Irrational thinking among slot machine players. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8(3), 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Wohl, M. J. A., & Enzle, M. E. (2002). The deployment of personal luck: Sympathetic magic and illusory control in games of pure chance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1388–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wohl, M. J. A., Young, M. M., & Hart, K. E. (2007). Self-perceptions of dispositional luck: Relationship to DSM gambling symptoms, subjective enjoyment of gambling and treatment readiness. Substance Use and Abuse, 42, 43–63.Google Scholar
  59. Wood, G. (1992). Predicting outcomes: Sports and stocks. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8(2), 201–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMacquarie UniversitySydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations