Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 391–405 | Cite as

Is Video-Game Playing a Risk Factor for Pathological Gambling in Australian Adolescents?

  • Paul Delfabbro
  • Daniel King
  • Chrisi Lambos
  • Stan Puglies
Original Paper

Abstract

Very little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between video-game playing and gambling in adolescence. In this study, 2,669 adolescents aged 13–17 years were surveyed to obtained details of their involvement in gambling and video-game playing as well as a measure of pathological gambling (the DSM-IV-J). The results showed that, the frequency of video game playing was significantly related to pathological gambling, but that the effect size was very small and largely accounted for by the greater popularity of both activities amongst boys. There was some evidence for stronger associations between technologically similar activities, namely arcade video games and an interest in gaming machines, but other factors discussed in the paper may also account for this association. In summary, the findings suggested that playing video-games is unlikely to be a significant risk factor for pathological gambling during adolescence.

Keywords

Adolescent gambling Video games Pathological gambling 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by grant from the Independent Gambling Authority of South Australia and was supported by the S.A. Department for Education and Children’s Services.

References

  1. Blaszczynski, A. (2008). Commentary: A response to “Problems with the concept of video game addiction”: Some case study examples”. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 179–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, R. I. F. (1989). Gaming, gambling, risk-taking, addictions and a developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships. In J. Klabberg, D. Croowell, H. de Jong, & W. Scheper (Eds.), Simulation gaming. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  4. Chantal, Y., Vallerand, R. J., & Vallieres, E. F. (2001). Motivation and gambling involvement. The Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 755–763.Google Scholar
  5. Chappell, D., Eatough, V., Davies, M. N. O., & Griffiths, M. D. (2006). Everquest—It’s just a computer game right? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of online computing addiction. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, 205–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charlton, J. P. (2002). A factor-analytic investigation of computer ‘addiction’ and engagement. British Journal of Psychology, 93, 329–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cole, H., & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). Social interactions in Massive Multiplayer Online Role-playing gamers. CyberPsychology and Behaviour, 10, 575–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Delfabbro, P. H., Lahn, J., & Grabosky, P. (2005). Adolescent gambling: A report on recent ACT research. Canberra: ACT Gambling and Racing Commission.Google Scholar
  9. Delfabbro, P. H., & LeCouteur, A. (2008). A decade of gambling research in Australia and New Zealand (1992–2007): Implications for policy, regulation and harm minimization. Adelaide: Independent Gambling Authority of South Australia.Google Scholar
  10. Delfabbro, P. H., & Thrupp, L. (2003). The social determinants of gambling in South Australian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 26, 313–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2000). Prevalence estimates of adolescent gambling: a comparison of the SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-J, and the GA 20 questions. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 227–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derevensky, J., Gupta, R., & Baboushkin, H. R. (2007). Underlying cognitions in children’s gambling behavior: Can they be modified? International Gambling Studies, 7, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dickson, L., Derevensky, J., & Gupta, R. (2002). The prevention of gambling problems in youth: A conceptual framework. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 97–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Diskin, K. M., & Hodgins, D. C. (1999). Narrowing of attention and dissociation in pathological video lottery gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fisher, S. E. (1992). Measuring pathological gambling in children: The case of fruit machines in the UK. Journal of Gambling Studies, 8, 263–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher, S. E. (1993). Gambling and pathological gambling in adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 277–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fisher, S. E. (1999). A prevalence study of gambling and problem gambling in British adolescents. Addiction Research, 7, 509–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Griffiths, M. D. (1991a). The observational study of adolescent gambling in UK amusement arcades. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 1, 309–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Griffiths, M. D. (1991b). Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: A comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 53–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Griffiths, M. D. (1995). Adolescent gambling. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Griffiths, M. D. (2008a). Digital impact, crossover technologies and gambling practices. Casino and Gaming International, 4, 37–42.Google Scholar
  22. Griffiths, M. D. (2008b). Video-game and Internet addiction. In C. A. Essau (Ed.), Adolescent addiction: Epidemiology, assessment and treatment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. Griffiths, M. D., & Delfabbro, P. H. (2001). The biopsychosocial approach to gambling: Contextual factors in research and clinical interventions. eGambling, 5, 1–34. Available at http://www.camh.net/egambling.
  24. Griffiths, M. D., & Hunt, N. (1995). Computer game playing in adolescence: Prevalence and demographic indicators. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 189–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Griffiths, M., & Sutherland, I. (1998). Adolescent gambling and drug use. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 8, 423–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (1996). The relationship between gambling and video-game playing behavior in children and adolescents. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 203–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998). Adolescent gambling behavior: A prevalence study and examination of the correlates associated with problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 227–251.Google Scholar
  28. Hardoon, K., & Derevensky, J. (2001). Social influences involved in children’s gambling behaviour. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hardoon, K., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours, 20, 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hoeft, F., Watson, C. L., Kesler, S. R., Bettinger, K. E., & Reiss, A. L. (2008). Gender differences in the mesocorticolimbic system during computer game-play. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42, 253–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Jacobs, D. F. (1987). Effects on children of parental excess in gambling. Paper presented at the seventh international conference on gambling and risk taking, Reno, NV.Google Scholar
  33. Jantzen, G., & Jensen, J. F. (1993). Powerplay—Power, violence and gender in video games. AI and Society, 7, 368–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ladouceur, R., Dubé, D., & Bujold, A. (1994). Gambling among primary school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 363–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lucas, K., & Sherry, J. L. (2004). Sex differences in video game play: A communication-based explanation. Communication Research, 31, 499–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Moore, S., & Ohtsuka, K. (1997). Gambling activities of young Australians: Developing a model of behavior. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 207–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Moore, S., & Ohtsuka, K. (2001). Youth gambling in Melbourne’s West: Changes between 1996 and 1998 for Anglo-European background and Asian background school based youth. International Gambling Studies, 1, 87–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Norris, K. O. (2004). Gender stereotypes, aggression, and computer games: An online study of women. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 714–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2004). The pathways model as harm minimisation for youth gamblers in educational settings. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21, 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Salguero, R. A. T., & Moran, R. M. B. (2002). Measuring problem video game playing in adolescents. Addiction, 97, 1601–1606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (1996). Estimating the prevalence of adolescent gambling disorders: A quantitative synthesis and guide toward standard gambling nomenclature. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 193–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Shaffer, H., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 168–172.Google Scholar
  43. Shaffer, H., & Korn, D. (2002). Gambling and related mental disorders: A public health analysis. Annual Review of Public Health, 23, 171–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stinchfield, R. (2000). Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 153–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Volberg, R., & Moore, W. (1999). Gambling and problem gambling among adolescents in Washington State: A six-year replication study 1993 to 1999. Olympia: Washington State Lottery.Google Scholar
  46. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M. O., & Hoffman, J. H. (2008). The prevalence of problem gambling among U.S. adolescents and young adults: Results from a national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(11), 9–133.Google Scholar
  47. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., Botzet, A., & Anderson, N. (2002). Prospective study of youth gambling behaviours. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wood, R. (2007). Problems with the concept of video game “addiction”: Some case study examples. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6, 169–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (1998). The acquisition, development and maintenance of lottery and scratchcard gambling in adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 21, 265–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D., Chappell, D., & Davies, M. N. O. (2004a). The structural characteristics of video games: A psycho-structural analysis. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wood, R. T. A., Griffiths, M. D., & Parke, A. (2007). Experiences of time loss among videogame players: An empirical study. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10, 38–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wood, R. T. A., Gupta, R., Derevenksy, J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2004b). Video game playing and gambling in adolescents: Common risk factors. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 14, 77–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wynne, H. J., Smith, G. J., & Jacobs, D. F. (1996). Adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Edmonton: Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Delfabbro
    • 1
  • Daniel King
    • 1
  • Chrisi Lambos
    • 1
  • Stan Puglies
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations