The NODS–CLiP: A Rapid Screen for Adult Pathological and Problem Gambling
- 497 Downloads
To describe and evaluate tests of the performance of the NODS–CLiP, an efficient standardized diagnostic interview instrument for adult pathological and problem gambling.
Setting and Samples
Identical batteries of diagnostic questions about gambling behavior, motives, and thoughts were administered to participants in eight general adult population field studies conducted in the United States between 1999 and 2003, including six state-level random-digit-dial (RDD) telephone surveys, one national RDD survey, and one in-person systematic random sample survey of commercial gambling patrons in eight states. Total survey N = 17,180. Response rates ranged from 24 to 71%.
Data from all experienced gamblers (N = 8,867) were re-analyzed to compare diagnostic status derived from the 17-item NORC Diagnostic Screen for Gambling Disorders (NODS), a validated DSM-IV-based instrument, with results from all 2- to 4-item subsets of NODS items.
Three NODS questions pertaining to loss of Control, Lying, and Preoccupation (the “CLiP”), requiring one minute to administer, identified virtually all pathological gamblers and most problem gamblers diagnosed by the complete NODS. The CLiP has excellent sensitivity and specificity for NODS constructs.
A two-stage NODS–CLiP procedure appears quite promising as an efficient epidemiological instrument for general population research and clinical triage for gambling disorders.
KeywordsPathological gambling Problem gambling Diagnostic screening NODS–CLiP
The analysis in this paper was partially supported by Grant no. AA12982 from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism to the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago (NORC). The authors were coworkers in the NORC Department of Substance Abuse, Mental Health, and Criminal Justice Studies from 1997 to 2005. The authors wish to acknowledge the many colleagues whose efforts went into the completion of the survey data reported here and the thousands of respondents who gave of their time and personal information.
- Abbott, M. W., & Volberg, R. A. (1999). Gambling and problem gambling in the community: An international overview and critique, Report No. 1 of the New Zealand Gaming Survey. Wellington, NZ: Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Bakken, I. J., Götestam, K. G., Gråwe, R. W., Wenzel, H. G., & Oren, A. (2009). Gambling behavior and gambling problems in Norway 2007. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, March 9, 2009 (epub ahead of print, PMID: 19298249; accessed June 30, 2009).Google Scholar
- Christensen Cummings Associates. (1993–1997).Gross annual wager of the United States (annual special editions). International Gaming and Wagering Business.Google Scholar
- Council of American Survey Organizations. (1982). On the definition of response rates—A special report of the CASRO task force on completion rates. Accessed March 15, 2006, from http://www.casro.org//resprates.cfm.
- Dawson, D. A., Grant, B. F., Stinson, F. S., & Zhou, Y. (2005). Effectiveness of the derived alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT-C) in screening for alcohol use disorders and risk drinking in the US general population. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research, 29(5), 844–854.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gerstein, D. R., Murphy, S. A., Toce, M. T., Hoffmann, J., Palmer, A., Johnson, R. A., Larison, C., Chuchro, L., Buie T., Engelman, L., Volberg, R., Harwood, A., Tucker, A., Christiansen, E., Cummings, W., & Sinclair, S. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. (http://cloud9.norc.uchicago.edu/dlib/ngis.htm).
- Jiménez-Murcia, S., Stinchfield, R., Alvarez-Moya, E., Jaurrieta, N., Bueno, B., Granero, R., et al. (2008). Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of a Spanish Translation of a measure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(1), 93–104. PMID: 18592357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lakey, C. E., Goodie, A. S., Lance, C. E., Stinchfield, R., & Winters, K. C. (2007). Examining DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling: Psychometric properties and evidence from cognitive biases. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23(4), 479–498. doi: 10.1007/s10899-007-9063-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lesieur, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. J. (1998). Analysis of pathological gambling. In T. A. Widiger, A. J. Francis, H. A. Pincus, R. Ross, M. B. First, W. Davis, & M. Kline (Eds.), DSM-IV sourcebook: Volume 4 (pp. 393–401). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Rugle, L. (2004). The treatment of problem and pathological gambling. Sacramento: California Office of Problem Gambling.Google Scholar
- Shapira, N. A., Ferguson, M. A., Frost-Pineda, K., & Gold, M. S. (2002). Gambling and problem gambling prevalence among adults in Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Stinchfield, R., Govoni, R., & Frisch, G. R. (2004). Screening and assessment instruments. In J. E. Grant & M. N. Potenza (Eds.), Pathological gambling: A clinical guide to treatment (pp. 207–231). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
- Toce-Gerstein, M., & Gerstein, D. (2004). Of time and the chase: Lifetime versus past-year measures of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Issues, 10. (http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue10/index.html).
- Toce-Gerstein, M., & Gerstein, D. R. (2007). Questionnaire development: The art of a stylized conversation. In G. J. Smith, D. Hodgins, & R. Williams (Eds.), Research and measurement issues in gambling studies (pp. 56–86). San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. A. (2001a). Gambling and problem gambling in North Dakota: A replication study, 1992 to 2000. Bismarck, ND: Office of the Governor.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. A. (2001b). Changes in gambling and problem gambling in Oregon, 1997 to 2000. Salem, OR: Oregon Gambling Addiction Treatment Foundation.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. A. (2002). Gambling and problem gambling in Nevada. Carson City: Department of Human Resources.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. A. (2003a). Gambling and problem gambling among seniors in Florida. Maitland: Florida Council on Compulsive Gambling.Google Scholar
- Volberg, R. A. (2003b). Gambling and problem gambling in Arizona. Report to the Arizona Lottery. Phoenix: Arizona Lottery.Google Scholar
- Welte, J., Barnes, G., Wieczorek, W., Tidwell, M.-C., & Parker, J. (2001). Alcohol and gambling pathology among U.S. adults: Prevalence, demographic patterns and comorbidity. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(70), 6–12.Google Scholar