Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 297–316 | Cite as

Extremely Frequent Behavior in Consumer Research: Theory and Empirical Evidence for Chronic Casino Gambling

  • Ralph Perfetto
  • Arch G. Woodside
Original Paper


The present study informs understanding of customer segmentation strategies by extending Twedt’s heavy-half propositions to include a segment of users that represent less than 2% of all households—consumers demonstrating extremely frequent behavior (EFB). Extremely frequent behavior (EFB) theory provides testable propositions relating to the observation that few (2%) consumers in many product and service categories constitute more than 25% of the frequency of product or service use. Using casino gambling as an example for testing EFB theory, an analysis of national survey data shows that extremely frequent casino gamblers do exist and that less than 2% of all casino gamblers are responsible for nearly 25% of all casino gambling usage. Approximately 14% of extremely frequent casino users have very low-household income, suggesting somewhat paradoxical consumption patterns (where do very low-income users find the money to gamble so frequently?). Understanding the differences light, heavy, and extreme users and non-users can help marketers and policymakers identify and exploit “blue ocean” opportunities (Kim and Mauborgne, Blue ocean strategy, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2005), for example, creating effective strategies to convert extreme users into non-users or non-users into new users.


Casino Theory Chronic Segments Conjunctural conditions Media behavior 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Rhode IslandKingstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of MarketingBoston College, Carroll School of ManagementChestnut HillUSA

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