Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 263–271 | Cite as

An Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of Lithuanian Versions of DSM-IV-MR-J and SOGS-RA

  • N. Skokauskas
  • B. Burba
  • D. Freedman
Original Paper


Objective: Since no Lithuanian instrument focuses specifically on the measurement of pathological gambling in adolescence, we aimed to adapt commonly used international instruments (SOGS-RA, DSM-IV-MR-J) and assess their psychometric properties. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of DSM-IV-MR-J and SOGS-RA was performed in several steps including translations, synthesis of translations, back-translations, expert committee review, and pre-testing. Adapted instruments were administered to randomly selected adolescents in grades V through XII from all schools in the second largest Lithuanian city (Kaunas). Results: The DSM-IV-MR-J identified 4.2% of the representative sample as pathological gamblers, whereas the SOGS-RA generated prevalence of 5.2%. Cronbach’s alpha for DSM-IV-MR-J in this sample was 0.80 and 0.75 for the SOGS-RA. The correlation coefficient between the SOGS-RA and the DSM-IV-MR-J was statistically significant (Pearson correlation = 0.892, P < 0.001). Using the DSM-IV-MR-J as the baseline for pathological gambling in adolescence, the overall classification accuracy of the SOGS-RA was judged to be adequate, correctly identifying 34 out of 35 pathological gamblers (Kappa = 0.833, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The Lithuanian versions of DSM-IV-MR-J and SOGS-RA exhibited acceptable validity and reliability. The DSM-IV-MR-J was found to be a more conservative measure of pathological gambling.


Pathological gambling Adolescence Psychometric properties DSM-IV-MR-J SOGS-RA 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryKaunas University of MedicineKaunasLithuania
  2. 2.Psychology Research CentreVilniusLithuania

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