Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 25, Issue 3, pp 377–390 | Cite as

Pathological Gambling in Estonia: Relationships with Personality, Self-Esteem, Emotional States and Cognitive Ability

  • Pille-Riin Kaare
  • René Mõttus
  • Kenn Konstabel
Original Paper

Abstract

Due to changes in gambling accessibility during the last decade gambling has become more widespread in Estonia and the prevalence of pathological gambling has sharply increased. The present study attempts to identify psychological characteristics of Estonian pathological gamblers. It has been shown that a wide range of social, economic, and individual factors (e.g. personality traits and emotional states) predict the likelihood of becoming a pathological gambler. In the present study, pathological gamblers’ (N = 33) personality traits, self-esteem, self-reported emotional states and cognitive ability were compared to the respective characteristics in a non-gambling control group (N = 42) matched for age, gender and educational level. It was found that compared to controls, pathological gamblers had higher scores on Neuroticism (especially on its immoderation facet) and lower scores on Conscientiousness (especially on its dutifulness and cautiousness facets) and on self-esteem scale. They reported more negative emotional states during the previous month (especially depression and anxiety). Finally, pathological gamblers had lower general cognitive ability. In a logistic regression model, the likelihood of being a pathological gambler was best predicted by high immoderation score and low cognitive ability.

Keywords

Gambling Pathological gambling Personality Cognitive ability Self-esteem 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was partly supported by Estonian Science Foundation Grant no. 7060.

References

  1. Abbott, M., & Volberg, R. (1994). Gambling and pathological gambling: Growth industry and growth pathology of the 1990s. Community Mental Health in New Zealand, 9, 22–31.Google Scholar
  2. Allcock, C. C., & Grace, D. M. (1988). Pathological gamblers are neither impulsive nor sensation seekers. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 22, 307–311. doi: 10.3109/00048678809161212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aluoja, A., Shlik, J., Vasar, V., Luuk, K., & Leinsalu, M. (1999). Development and psychometric properties of the emotional state questionnaire, a self-report questionnaire for depression and anxiety. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 53, 443–449. doi: 10.1080/080394899427692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. Bagby, M. R., Vachon, D. D., Bulmash, E. L., Toneatto, T., Quilty, L. C., & Costa, P. T. (2007). Pathological gambling and the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 873–880. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.02.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Esteem threat, self-regulatory breakdown, and emotional distress as factors in self-defeating behaviour. Review of General Psychology, 1, 145–174. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.1.2.145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baumeister, R. F., & Tice, D. M. (1985). Self-esteem and responses to success and failure: Subsequent performance and intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality, 53, 450–467. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1985.tb00376.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaszczynski, A., & McConaghy, N. (1989). Anxiety and/or depression in the pathogenesis of addictive gambling. The International Journal of the Addictions, 24, 337–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blaszczynski, A., Steel, Z., & McConaghy, N. (1997). Impulsivity in pathological gambling: The antisocial impulsivist. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 92, 75–87. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1997.tb03639.x.Google Scholar
  10. Blaszczynski, A., Wilson, A. C., & McConaghy, N. (1986). Sensation seeking and pathological gambling. British Journal of Addiction, 81, 113–117. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1986.tb00301.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.100.3.316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Clarke, D. (2006). Impulsivity as a mediator in the relationship between depression and problem gambling. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 5–15. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Costa, P. T., Jr., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  14. Cox, B. J., Yu, N., & Afifi, T. O. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 213–217.Google Scholar
  15. Cunningham-Williams, R. M., Cottler, L. B., Compton, W. M., & Spitznagel, E. L. (1998). Taking chances: Problem gamblers and mental health disorders: Results from the St. Louis epidemiologic catchment area study. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1093–1096. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.88.7.1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. el-Guebaly, N., Patten, S. B., Currie, S., Williams, J. V. A., Beck, C. A., Maxwell, C. J., et al. (2006). Epidemiological associations between gambling behaviour, substance use & mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 275–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Estonian Gaming Operator Association. (2009). Retrieved January 23, 2009, from http://www.ehkl.ee/index.php?page=56.
  18. Faktum Uuringukeskus. (2004). Elanike kokkupuuted hasart- ja õnnemängudega (Gambling prevalence in Estonia). Tallinn: Faktum.Google Scholar
  19. Fisher, S. (2000). Measuring the prevalence of sector specific problem gambling: A study of casino patrons. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 25–52. doi: 10.1023/A:1009479300400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Getty, H. A., Watson, J. G., & Frisch, R. (2000). A comparison of depression and styles of coping in male and female GA members and controls. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 377–391. doi: 10.1023/A:1009480106531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gottfredson, L. (1997). Why g matters: The complexity of everyday life. Intelligence, 24, 79–132. doi: 10.1016/S0160-2896(97)90014-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Griffiths, M. (1999). Gambling technologies: Prospects for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 265–283. doi: 10.1023/A:1023053630588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hodgins, D. C., Peden, N., & Cassidy, E. (2005). The association between comorbidity and outcome in pathological gambling: A prospective follow-up of recent quitter. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 255–271. doi: 10.1007/s10899-005-3099-3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ibanez, A., Blanco, C., Donahue, E., Lesieur, H. R., de Castro, I. P., Fernandez-Piqueras, J., et al. (2001). Psychiatric comorbidity in pathological gamblers seeking treatment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1733–1735. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.158.10.1733.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacques, C., Ladouceur, R., & Ferland, F. (2000). Impact of availability on gambling: A longitudinal study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 810–815.Google Scholar
  26. Jensen, A. R. (1998). The g factor: The science of mental ability. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  27. Kim, S. W., Grant, J. E., Eckert, E. D., Faris, P. L., & Hartman, B. K. (2006). Pathological gambling and mood disorders: Clinical associations and treatment implications. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92, 109–116. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2005.12.040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kuley, N. B., & Jacobs, D. F. (1988). The relationship between dissociative-like experiences and sensation seeking among social and problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 197–207. doi: 10.1007/BF01018332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laansoo, S. (2005). Patoloogiline hasartmängimine: ulatus Eestis ning seosed käitumuslike ja isiksuslike riskifaktoritega (Pathological gambling in Estonia and the relationships with behavioural and personal risk factors). Unpublished master’s thesis, University of Tallinn, Estonia.Google Scholar
  30. Laansoo, S., & Niit, T. (2008). Gambling in Estonia. In G. Meyer, T. Hayer, & M. Griffiths (Eds.), Problem gambling in Europe extent and preventive efforts. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Langewisch, M. W. J., & Frisch, G. R. (1998). Gambling behaviour and pathology in relation to impulsivity, sensation seeking, and risky behaviour in male college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 245–262. doi: 10.1023/A:1022005625498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The south oaks gambling screen (The SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1993). Revising the south oaks gambling screen in different settings. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 213–223. doi: 10.1007/BF01015919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. MacCallum, F., Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Nower, L. (2007). Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in pathological gambling. Personality and Individual Differences, 4, 1829–1838. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mõttus, R., Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2006). Toward more readable big five personality inventories. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 22, 149–157. doi: 10.1027/1015-5759.22.3.149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Parke, J., & Griffiths, M. (2006). The psychology of the fruit machine: The role of structural characteristics (Revisited). International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 4, 151–179. doi: 10.1007/s11469-006-9014-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Perkins, A. M., & Corr, P. J. (2006). Cognitive ability as a buffer to neuroticism: Churchill’s secret weapon? Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 39–51. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2005.05.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Petry, N. M., Stinson, F. S., & Grant, B. F. (2005). Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66, 564–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Pullmann, H., & Allik, J. (2000). The Rosenberg self-esteem scale: its dimensionality, stability and personality correlates in Estonian. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, 701–715. doi: 10.1016/S0191-8869(99)00132-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Raven, J. (1981). Manual for Raven’s progressive matrices and mill hill vocabulary scales. Oxford: Oxford Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  41. Raven, J. (2000). The Raven’s progressive matrices: Change and stability over culture and time. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 1–48. doi: 10.1006/cogp.1999.0735.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2002). Pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1009–1061. doi: 10.1016/S0272-7358(02)00101-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and adolescent child. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Rosenberg, M. (1979). Conceiving the self. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  45. Scherrer, J. F., Slutske, W. S., Hong, X., Waterman, B., Shah, K. R., Volberg, R., et al. (2007). Factors associated with pathological gambling at 10-year follow-up in a national sample of middle-aged men. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 102, 970–978. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.01833.x.Google Scholar
  46. Slutske, W. S., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T. E., & Poulton, R. (2005). Personality and problem gambling: A prospective study of a birth cohort of young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 769–775. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.7.769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Steel, Z., & Blaszczynski, A. (1998). Impulsivity, personality disorders and pathological gambling severity. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 93, 895–905. doi: 10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.93689511.x.Google Scholar
  48. Strenze, T. (2007). Intelligence and socioeconomic success: A meta-analytic review of longitudinal research. Intelligence, 35, 401–426. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2006.09.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Stucki, S., & Rihs-Middel, M. (2007). Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 245–257. doi: 10.1007/s10899-006-9031-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Turu-uuringud. (2006). Elanikkonna kokkupuude hasart- ja õnnemängudega (Gambling prevalence in Estonia). Tallinn: Turu-uuringud.Google Scholar
  51. Vitaro, F., Arsenault, L., & Tremblay, R. E. (1997). Dispositional predictors of problem gambling in male adolescents. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1769–1770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Volberg, R. A. (1994). The prevalence and demographics of pathological gamblers: Implications for public health. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 237–241. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.84.2.237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M.-C. O., & Parker, J. C. (2004). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 323–335. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2003.08.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pille-Riin Kaare
    • 1
  • René Mõttus
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kenn Konstabel
    • 2
    • 4
  1. 1.Centre of Problem GamblingTallinnEstonia
  2. 2.Institute of PsychologyUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  3. 3.The Estonian Centre of Behavioural and Health SciencesTartuEstonia
  4. 4.National Institute for Health DevelopmentTallinnEstonia

Personalised recommendations