Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 193–205 | Cite as

Mental Health of Non-gamblers Versus “Normal” Gamblers Among American Indian Veterans: A Community Survey

  • Joseph Westermeyer
  • Jose Canive
  • Paul Thuras
  • James Thompson
  • Suk W. Kim
  • Ross D. Crosby
  • Judith Garrard
Original Paper

Abstract

Goal This analysis was undertaken to assess the demographic and mental health characteristics of “normal” or non-problem gamblers versus non-gamblers in a representative community sample. Sample Study participants consisted of 557 North Central American Indian veterans. Data collection included a demographic and trauma questionnaire, a computer-based Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III-R, and a treatment history algorithm. Findings Univariate analyses revealed that gamblers had greater social competence (i.e., higher education, living with a spouse) and higher lifetime psychiatric morbidity. Binary regression analysis revealed that, compared to non-gamblers, gamblers were older, more highly educated, and more apt to be married. More gamblers showed evidence for lifetime risk-taking as evidenced by Antisocial Personality Disorder and Tobacco Dependence. Conclusions Social achievement and disposable income function as prerequisites for “normal” gambling in this population, although “externalizing” or “risk-taking” disorders also serve as independent contributors to at least some gambling. The increased rate of “internalizing” or emotional disorders are only indirectly related to gambling, perhaps through increasing age or through the “externalizing” disorders.

Keywords

Gambling Veterans American Indian Mental health Treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was support by a grant from the HSRD Research Office of Veterans Administration Central Office. Dana Chesness coordinated data collection, and Sean Nugent managed the database.

References

  1. Aasved, M. (2003). The biology of gambling. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  4. Baboushkin, H. R., Hardoon, K. K., et al. (2001). Underlying cognitions in gambling behavior among university students. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1409–1430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boyd W. H. (1976). Excitement: The gambler’s drug. In W. R. Eadington (Ed.), Gambling and society. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas.Google Scholar
  6. Busemeyer, J. R., & Stout, J. C. (2002). A contribution of cognitive decision models to clinical assessment: Decomposing performance on the Bechara gambling task. Psychological Assessment, 14, 253–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Castellani, B., Wootton, E., et al. (1996). Homelessness, negative affect, and coping among veterans with gambling problems who misused substances. Psychiatric Services, 47(3), 298–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cole, W. R., & Hastie, R. (1978). The effects of lottery game structure and format on subjective probability and attractiveness of gambles. Personality & Social Psychology, 4(4), 608–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Downes, D. M., Davies, B., et al. (1976). Gambling, work and leisure: A study across three areas. London: Routledge & Kegan.Google Scholar
  10. Ebstein, R. P., Novick, O., et al. (1996). Dopamine D4 receptor (D4DR) exon III polymorphism associated with the human personality trait of novelty seeking. Nature Genetics, 12, 78–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grant, J. E., & Potenza, M. N., (Eds.) (2004). Pathological gambling: A Clinical guide to treatment. Washington: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  12. Griffiths, M. D. (1990). The cognitive psychology of gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 6(1), 31–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jacobs, D. F. (1986). A general theory of addictions: A new theoretical model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2(1), 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kallick, M. D., Suits, D., et al. (1979). A survey of American gambling attitudes and behavior. Ann Arbor: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  15. Koepp, M. J., Gunn, R. N., et al. (1998). Evidence for striatal dopamine release during a video game. Nature, 393, 266–268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krueger, R. F., McGue, M., et al. (2001). The high-order structure of common DSM mental disorders: Internalization, externalization, and their connections to personality. Personality & Individual Differences, 30, 1245–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ladouceur, R., Dube, D., et al. (1995). Cognitive biases in gambling: American roulette and 6/49 lottery. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 10(2), 473–479.Google Scholar
  18. Laundergan, J., Schaefer, J., et al. (1990). Adult survey of Minnesota gambling behavior. St. Paul: State Department of Human Services.Google Scholar
  19. Lesieur H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1991). When lady luck loses: Women and compulsive gambling. In N. VandenBergh (Ed.), Feminist perspectives on addictions (pp. 181–197). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Lopes, L. L. (1987). Between hope and fear: The psychology of risk. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 20, 255–295.Google Scholar
  21. Miller, M. A., & Westermeyer, J. (1996). Gambling in Minnesota (brief report). American Journal of Psychiatry, 153(6), 845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Niederland, W. G. (1967). A contribution to the psychology of gambling. Psychoanalytic Forum, 2, 175–185.Google Scholar
  23. Niederland, W. G. (1984). Compulsive gambling and the ‘survivor syndrome’. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141(8), 1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Petry, N. M. (2000). Gambling problems in substance abusers are associated with increased sexual risk behaviors. Addiction, 95, 1089–1100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Potenza, M. N., Fiellin, D. A., et al. (2002). Gambling: An addictive behavior with health and primary care implications. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 17, 721–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Skea, W. H. (1995). “Postmodern” Las Vegas and its effects on gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12(4), 461–469.Google Scholar
  27. Steiner, J. (1970). An experimental study of risk-taking. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 63(12), 1271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Thurman, P. J., Jones-Saumty, D., et al. (1990). Locus of control and drinking behavior in American Indian alcoholics and non-alcoholics. American Indian and Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 4(1), 31–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Volberg, R. A. (2003). Has there been a “feminization” of gambling and problem gambling in the United States. Electronic Journal of Gambling Issues, 8, 1–33.Google Scholar
  30. Volberg, R. A., & Abbott, M. W. (1997). Gambling and problem gambling among indigenous people. Substance Use & Misuse, 32(11), 1525–1538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Volberg, R. A., & Steadman, H. J. (1988). Refining prevalence estimates of pathological gambling. American Journal of Psychiatry, 145(4), 502–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Weibel-Orlando J. (1990). American Indians and prohibition: Effect or affect? Views from the reservation and the city. Contemporary Drug Problems, 17(Summer): 293–322.Google Scholar
  33. Wellford, C. F., Camerer, C., et al. (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  34. Westermeyer, J. (1972). Options regarding alcohol usage among the Chippewa. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 42, 398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Westermeyer, J., Canive, J., et al. (2002a). Perceived barriers to mental health care for American Indian and Hispanic veterans: Reports by 100 VA staff. Transcultural Psychiatry, 39(4), 516–530.Google Scholar
  36. Westermeyer, J., Canive, J., et al. (2002b). Perceived barriers to VA mental health care among upper midwest American Indian veterans; Description and associations. Medical Care, 40(Suppl. 1), 62–71.Google Scholar
  37. Westermeyer, J., Canive, J., et al. (2005). Lifetime prevalence of pathological gambling among American Indian and Hispanic Veterans. American Journal of Public Health, 95(5), 860–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Westermeyer, J., Canive, J., et al. (2006). Remission from pathological gambling among Hispanic and Native Americans. Community Mental Health Journal, 42(6), 537–553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Zitzow, D. (1996). Comparative study of problematic gambling behaviors between American Indian and non-Indian adults in a northern plains reservation. American Indian Alaska Native Mental Health Research, 7(2), 27–41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Westermeyer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jose Canive
    • 4
    • 5
  • Paul Thuras
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Thompson
    • 6
    • 7
  • Suk W. Kim
    • 2
  • Ross D. Crosby
    • 8
    • 9
  • Judith Garrard
    • 2
  1. 1.Minneapolis VAMCMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.MinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Mental Health ServiceAlbuquerque VAMCAlbuquerqueUSA
  5. 5.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  6. 6.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  7. 7.Delaware Tribe of OklahomaOklahomaUSA
  8. 8.Neuropsychiatric Research InstituteFargoUSA
  9. 9.University of North Dakota School of MedicineGrand ForksUSA

Personalised recommendations