Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 193–205 | Cite as

Mental Health of Non-gamblers Versus “Normal” Gamblers Among American Indian Veterans: A Community Survey

  • Joseph Westermeyer
  • Jose Canive
  • Paul Thuras
  • James Thompson
  • Suk W. Kim
  • Ross D. Crosby
  • Judith Garrard
Original Paper


Goal This analysis was undertaken to assess the demographic and mental health characteristics of “normal” or non-problem gamblers versus non-gamblers in a representative community sample. Sample Study participants consisted of 557 North Central American Indian veterans. Data collection included a demographic and trauma questionnaire, a computer-based Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-III-R, and a treatment history algorithm. Findings Univariate analyses revealed that gamblers had greater social competence (i.e., higher education, living with a spouse) and higher lifetime psychiatric morbidity. Binary regression analysis revealed that, compared to non-gamblers, gamblers were older, more highly educated, and more apt to be married. More gamblers showed evidence for lifetime risk-taking as evidenced by Antisocial Personality Disorder and Tobacco Dependence. Conclusions Social achievement and disposable income function as prerequisites for “normal” gambling in this population, although “externalizing” or “risk-taking” disorders also serve as independent contributors to at least some gambling. The increased rate of “internalizing” or emotional disorders are only indirectly related to gambling, perhaps through increasing age or through the “externalizing” disorders.


Gambling Veterans American Indian Mental health Treatment 



This study was support by a grant from the HSRD Research Office of Veterans Administration Central Office. Dana Chesness coordinated data collection, and Sean Nugent managed the database.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph Westermeyer
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Jose Canive
    • 4
    • 5
  • Paul Thuras
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Thompson
    • 6
    • 7
  • Suk W. Kim
    • 2
  • Ross D. Crosby
    • 8
    • 9
  • Judith Garrard
    • 2
  1. 1.Minneapolis VAMCMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.University of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.MinneapolisUSA
  4. 4.Mental Health ServiceAlbuquerque VAMCAlbuquerqueUSA
  5. 5.University of New MexicoAlbuquerqueUSA
  6. 6.University of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  7. 7.Delaware Tribe of OklahomaOklahomaUSA
  8. 8.Neuropsychiatric Research InstituteFargoUSA
  9. 9.University of North Dakota School of MedicineGrand ForksUSA

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