Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 39–54 | Cite as

Harm Reduction and Electronic Gambling Machines: Does this Pair Make a Happy Couple or is Divorce Foreseen?

Review Paper

Abstract

Recent empirical studies have evaluated if modifying electronic gambling machine (EGM) structural features could encourage safer gambling behaviors and decrease gambling-related problems. Several of these studies refer to Harm Reduction (HR), suggesting that the HR paradigm is useful to design, implement and test the efficacy of various prevention and treatment programs applied to EGM users. After reviewing the origins of HR and specifying its operational definition, this paper discusses the relevance of the HR framework for the study of measures related to EGM use and gambling in general. Examples are given to illustrate the arguments. The results show that HR has been over-inclusive in the field of gambling. A specific and operational definition and application of the HR framework is required for HR to be useful for the advancement of research in the gambling field.

Keywords

Electronic gambling machine EGM Prevention Harm reduction 

References

  1. Adams, J. (2007). Man who left son in car at casino is sentenced. Star Tribune. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://www.startribune.com.
  2. Ball, A. L. (2007). HIV, injecting drug use and harm reduction: A public health response. Addiction, 102, 684–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bernhard, B. J., & Preston, F. W. (2004). On the shoulders of Merton: Potentially sobering consequences of problem gambling policy. American Behavioral Scientist, 47, 1395–1405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A. (2002). Harm minimization strategies in gambling. An overview of international initiatives and interventions. Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www.austgamingcouncil.org.au/research/research.htm.
  5. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., & Nower, L. (2007). Self-exclusion: A proposed gateway to treatment model. International Gambling Studies, 7, 59–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blaszczynski, A., Sharpe, L., & Walker, M. (2001). The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling. A report for the gaming industry operators group (Final report). Sydney, Australia: The University of Sydney Gambling Research Unit.Google Scholar
  7. Bradley-Springer, L. (2003). Not yet ready from prime time? Safe injection facilities in the overall prevention scheme. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 14(5), 71–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breen, H., Buultjens, J., & Hing N. (2003). The responsible gambling code in Queensland: Implementation and venue assessment. Canberra, Australia: NAGS Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
  9. Breen, R. B., & Zimmerman, M. (2002). Rapid onset of pathological gambling in machine gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 31–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Campbell, C. S. (2000). Lawlessness: Gaming policies in British Columbia, Canada. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Gambling Conference, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  11. Chevalier, S., Hamel, D., Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Allard, D., & Sévigny, S. (2004). Comportements de jeu et jeu pathologique selon le type de jeu au Québec en 2002 [Gambling behaviors and pathological gambling according to the type of game in Quebec, 2002]. Retrived October 25, 2006, from http://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/267-ComportementsJeuQuebec2002.pdf.
  12. Cloutier, M., Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2006). Responsible gambling tools: Pop-up messages and pauses on video lottery terminals. Journal of Psychology, 140, 434–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Corporate Research Associates. (2006). Video lottery program changes. Impact analysis. Retrieved June 21, 2007, from: https://www.nsgc.ca/pdf/VLTimpactanalysisreport.pdf.
  14. Côté, D., Caron, A., Aubert, J., Desrochers, V., & Ladouceur, R. (2003). Near wins prolong gambling on a video lottery terminal. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19, 433–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Courtney, K. A. (2002). Unattended children in casinos—Whose responsibility? Gaming Law Review, 6, 101–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dickerson, M., Hinchy, J., England, S. L., Fabre, J., & Cunningham, R. (1992). On the determinants of persistent gambling behaviour. I. High-frequency poker machine players. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 237–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Doiron, J. P., & Nicki, R. M. (2001). Epidemiology of problem gambling in Prince Edward Island: A Canadian microcosm? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 413–417.Google Scholar
  18. Doiron, J. P. (2006). Gambling and problem gambling in Prince Edward Island. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/doh_GambReport.pdf.
  19. Dowling, N., Smith, D., & Thomas, T. (2005). Electronic gaming machines: Are they the “crack-cocaine” of gambling? Addiction, 100, 33–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Drucker, E. (2005). Witch-hunt. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(3). Retrieved May 10, 2007, from http://www.harmreductionjournal.com/content/2/1/3.
  21. Duncan, D. F., Nicholson, T., Clifford, P., Hawkins, W., & Petosa, R. (1994). Harm reduction: An emerging new paradigm for drug education. Journal of Drug Education, 24, 281–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Erickson, P. G. (1999). Introduction: The three phases of harm reduction. An examination of emerging concepts, methodologies, and critiques. Substance Use & Misuse, 34, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Finney, J. W., & Moos, R. H. (2006). Matching clients’ treatment goals with treatment oriented towards abstinence, moderation or harm reduction. Addiction, 101, 1540–1542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gilliland, J. A., & Ross, N. A. (2005). Opportunities for video lottery terminal gambling in Montréal: An environmental analysis. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, 55–59.Google Scholar
  25. Götestam, K., & Johansson, A. (2003). Characteristics of gambling and problematic gambling in the Norwegian context. A DSM-IV-based telephone interview study. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 189–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hall, W. (2007). What’s in a name? [commentary]. Addiction, 102, 692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Harper, T. (2003). Smoking and gambling: A trance inducing ritual. Tobacco Control, 12, 231–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hing, N. (2003). An assessment of member awareness, perceived adequacy and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies in Sydney Clubs. Lismore, Australia: Southern Cross University, Centre for Gambling Education and Research.Google Scholar
  29. Human Services Administration of Lincoln. (2004). Socioeconomic indicators of legalized gambling in Lincoln/Lancaster County, Nebraska. Lancaster County, NE: Joint Budget Committee.Google Scholar
  30. International Harm Reduction Association. What is harm reduction? Retrieved March 29, 2006 from http://www.ihra.net.
  31. Julien, E., & Desenclos, J.-C. (2005). Harm reduction interventions, behaviours and associated health outcomes in France, 1996–2003. Addiction, 100, 1690–1700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kassinove, J. I., & Schare, M. L. (2001). Effects of the “near miss” and the “big win” on persistence at slot machine gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 15, 155–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koch, E. (2005). Deadly lapse of memory. Kids in cars: An ongoing investigation. Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://www.lasvegassun.com.
  34. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Sévigny, S., & Cantinotti, M. (2005). Impact of the format, arrangement and availability of electronic gaming machines outside casinos. International Gambling Studies, 5, 139–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Giroux, I., Ferland, F., & Leblond, J. (2000). Analysis of a casino’s self-exclusion program. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 453–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2002). Symbols presentation modality as a determinant of gambling behavior. Journal of Psychology, 136, 443–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2003). Interactive messages on video lottery terminals and the persistence to gamble. Gambling Research, 15, 45–50.Google Scholar
  38. Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2005). Structural characteristics of video lotteries: Effects of a stopping device on illusion of control and gambling persistence. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 117–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2006). The impact of video lottery game speed on gamblers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 17. Retrieved September 5, 2006, from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue17/ladouceur.html.
  40. Lafortune, D., & Kiely, M. C. (1989). Prévention primaire des psychopathologies: Appellation contrôlée [Primary prevention of psychopathology: A licensed terminology]. Santé Mentale au Québec, 14, 54–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lavoie, M., Godin, G., & Valois, P. (1999). Understanding the use of a community-based drive-home service after alcohol consumption among young adults. Journal of Community Health, 24, 171–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. (1995). First session of the thirty-sixth legislature (Volume 19, Committee of Supply—Department of Family Services). Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://www.gov.mb.ca/hansard/hansard/1st-36th/vol19/h019_4.html.
  43. Lenton, S., & Single, S. (1998). The definition of harm reduction. Drug and Alcohol Review, 17, 213–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lesieur, H. R., & Rothschild, J. (1989). Children of gamblers anonymous members. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 59, 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Loba, P., Stewart, S. H., Klein, R. M., & Blackburn, J. R. (2001). Manipulations of the features of standard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: Effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 17, 297–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Loxley, W. (2000). Doing the possible: Harm reduction, injecting drug use and blood borne viral infection in Australia. International Journal of Drug policy, 11, 407–416.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lund, I. (2006). Gambling and problem gambling in Norway: What part does the gambling machine play? Addiction Research and Theory, 14, 475–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. MacCoun, R. J. (1998). Toward a psychology of harm reduction. American Psychologist, 53, 1199–1208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacMaster, S. A. (2004). Harm reduction: A new perspective on substance abuse services. Social Work, 49, 356–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Marlatt, A. G. (1996). Harm reduction: Come as you are. Addictive Behaviors, 21, 779–788.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Marshall, D. C., & Baker, R. G. V. (2001). Clubs, spades, diamonds and disadvantages: The geography of electronic gaming machines in Melbourne. Australian Geographical Studies, 39, 17–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Marshall, D., McMillen, J., Niemeyer, S., & Doran, B. (2004). Gaming machine accessibility and use in suburban Canberra: A detailed analysis of the Tuggeranong valley. Canberra: ANU Centre for Gambling.Google Scholar
  53. McLaren, C., Null, J., & Quinn, J. (2005). Heat stress from enclosed vehicles: Moderate ambient temperatures cause significant temperature rise in enclosed vehicles. Pediatrics, 116, 109–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. McMillen, J., & Pitt, S. (2005). Review of the ACT government’s harm minimisation measures. Canberra, Australia: Centre for Gambling Research. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://gambling.anu.edu.au/menu/PDFs/Policy%20Review-Final-withISBN.pdf.
  55. McMullan, J., & Perrier, D. (2007). The security of gambling and gambling with security: Hacking, law enforcement and public policy. International Gambling Studies, 7, 43–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ministry of Public Safety and Sollicitor General. (2003). Advertising and marketing standards for the B. C. gambling industry. Retrieved June 19, 2007, from http://www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/gaming/legislation-policies/docs/stds-advertising-marketing.pdf.
  57. Morgan, T., Kofoed, L., Buchkoski, J., & Carr, R. D. (1996). Video lottery gambling: Effects on pathological gamblers seeking treatment in South Dakota. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 451–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Muelleman, R. L., DenOtter, T., Wadman, M. C., Tran, T. P., & Anderson, J. (2002). Problem gambling in the partner of the emergency department patient as a risk factor for intimate partner violence. Journal of Emergency Medicine, 23, 307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nowatzki, N. R., & Williams, R. J. (2002). Casino self-exclusion programmes: A review of the issues. International Gambling Studies, 2, 3–25.Google Scholar
  60. Nower, L., & Blaszczynski, A. (2006). Characteristics and gender differences among self-excluded casino problem gamblers: Missouri data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 81–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. O’Boyle, T. (2006). The illegal use of video poker machines by public bars and private social clubs in Pennsylvania: It’s a rational choice. Journal of Economic Crime Management, 4(1). Retrieved May 16, 2007, from www.jecm.org.Google Scholar
  62. O’Hare, P. (2007). Merseyside, the first harm reduction conferences, and the early history of harm reduction. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18, 141–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Omnifact Bristol Research. (2007). Nova Scotia player card research project (Stage III research report). Retrieved June 19, 2007, from http://www.nsgc.ca/pdf/Omnifacts%20Bristol%20Research%20Report.pdf.
  64. Parascandola, M. (2005). Science, industry, and tobacco harm reduction: A case study of tobacco industry scientist’ involvement in the National cancer institute’s smoking and helath program, 1964–1980. Public Health Reports, 120, 338–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Paré, R., & Rousselle, C. (2007, June). L’intervention de crise au casino de Montréal [Crisis intervention at the Montreal casino]. Poster presented at the Colloque francophone « Les multiples facettes du jeu », Québec, Canada.Google Scholar
  66. Quinn, F. L. (2001). First do not harm: What could be done by casinos to limit pathological gambling. Managerial and Decision Economics, 22, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Quinn, J. P. (1969). Gambling and gambling devices. In Patterson Smith reprint series in criminology, law enforcement, and social problems: Vol. 48. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith Publishing Corporation. (Originally published 1912).Google Scholar
  68. Problem Gambling Foundation of New Zealand. (2006). Family violence and gambling. Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://www.cgs.co.nz/files/domestic_violence_and_gambling(2)sept06.pdf.
  69. Régie des alcools, des courses et des jeux. (2004). Alcohol: Public messages. Retrieved February 3, 2007, from http://www.racj.gouv.qc.ca.
  70. Rekart, M. (2005). Sex-work harm reduction. Lancet, 366, 2123–2134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Riga, A., & Authier, P. (2006, October 25). Smokes ban hits loto-Quebec. The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette.
  72. Ritter, A., & Cameron, J. (2005). Monograph No. 06: A systematic review of harm reduction (DPMP Monograph Series). Fitzroy, Australia: Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre.Google Scholar
  73. Roberts, A. R., & Yeager, K. R. (2005). Lethality assessment and crisis intervention with persons presenting with suicidal ideation. In A. R. Roberts (Ed.), Crisis intervention handbook: Assessment, treatment, and research (3rd ed., pp. 35–63). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Robson, G., & Marlatt, G. A. (2006). Harm reduction and alcohol policy [Editorial]. International Journal of Drug policy, 17, 255–257.Google Scholar
  75. Rodda, S., & Cowie, M. (2005). Evaluation of electronic gaming machine harm minimization measures in Victoria (final report). Melbourne, Australia: Office of Gaming and Racing, Victorian Government Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  76. Rose, N. (2003a). Status of Gambling Laws. Gaming Law Review, 7, 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rose, N. (2003b). Underage gambling and the law. In H. J. Shaffer, M. N. Hall, J. Vander Bilt, & E. George (Eds.), Futures at stake: Youth, gambling and society (pp. 126–189). Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.Google Scholar
  78. Sadinsky, S. (2005). Review of the problem-gambling and responsible-gaming strategy of the Government of Ontario. Retrieved June 1, 2007, from http://health.gov.on.ca/english/public/pub/ministry_reports/gambling_05/sadinsky.pdf.
  79. Schellinck, T., & Schrans, T. (2002). Atlantic Lottery Corporation video lottery responsible gaming feature research (Final report). Halifax, NS: Focal Research Consultants Ltd. Retrieved February 20, 2003, from http://www.gamingcorp.ns.ca/responsible/pbrgf.htm.
  80. Schrans, T., Grace, J., & Schellinck, T. (2004). 2003 NS VL Responsible Gaming Features Evaluation (Final report). Halifax, NS: Focal Research Consultants Ltd. Retrieved December 21, 2004, from http://www.gamingcorp.ns.ca/pdf/2003-NS-VL-RGF-Nov9–2004.pdf.
  81. Sharpe, L., Walker, M., Coughlan, M.-J., Enersen, K., & Blaszczynski, A. (2005). Structural changes to electronic gaming machines as effective harm minimization strategies for non-problem and problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 503–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith, G. J., & Wynne, H. J. (2002). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from: https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/1626/1/gambling_alberta_cpgi.pdf.
  83. Smith, G. J., & Wynne, H. J. (2004). VLT gambling in Alberta: A preliminary analysis (Final report). Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute and University of Alberta. Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/abgaminginstitute//pdfs/VLT_Gambling_Alberta.pdf.
  84. Sobell, M. B., & Sobell, L. C. (1995). Controlled drinking after 25 years: How important was the great debate? Addiction, 90, 1149–1153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stafford, N. (2007). Using words: The harm reduction conception of drug use and drug users. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18, 88–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stewart, S. H., Peterson, J.B., Collins, P., Eisnor, S., & Ellery, M. (2006). Heart rate increase to alcohol administration and video lottery terminal play among probable pathological gamblers and nonpathological gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 20, 53–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Stimson, G. V. (2007). “Harm reduction—Coming of an age”: A local movement with global impact. International Journal of Drug Policy, 18, 67–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stockwell, T. (2001). Harm reduction, drinking patterns and the NHMRC drinking guidelines. Drugs and Alcohol Review, 20, 121–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Stockwell, T. (2006). Alcohol supply, demand, and harm reduction: What is the strongest cocktail? International Journal of Drug Policy, 17, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tammi, T. (2004). The harm-reduction school of thought: Three fractions. Contemporary Drug Problems, 31, 381–399.Google Scholar
  91. Tammi, T. (2005). Discipline or contain? The struggle over the concept of harm reduction in the 1997 Drug Policy Committee in Finland. International Journal of Drug Policy, 16, 384–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thomson, G., & Wilson, N. (2006). One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses. BMC Public Health, 6(64), Retrieved October 1, 2006, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471–2458–6-64.
  93. Valenzuela, T. D., Roe, D. J., Nichol, G., Clark, L. L., Spaite, D. W., & Hardman, R. G. (2000). Outcomes of rapid defibrillation by security officers after cardiac arrest in casinos. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1206–1209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Volberg, R. A. (2003). Gambling and problem gambling in Arizona. Northampton, MA: Gemini Research. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from http://www.problemgambling.az.gov/prevalencestudy.pdf.
  95. Walker, M. B. (1992). The psychology of gambling. Sydney, Australia: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  96. World Health Organization. (1994). Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 13, 2006, from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/terminology/who_lexicon/en.

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre québécois d’excellence pour la prévention et le traitement du jeu, École de psychologieUniversité LavalQuebecCanada

Personalised recommendations