Harm Reduction and Electronic Gambling Machines: Does this Pair Make a Happy Couple or is Divorce Foreseen?
- 505 Downloads
Recent empirical studies have evaluated if modifying electronic gambling machine (EGM) structural features could encourage safer gambling behaviors and decrease gambling-related problems. Several of these studies refer to Harm Reduction (HR), suggesting that the HR paradigm is useful to design, implement and test the efficacy of various prevention and treatment programs applied to EGM users. After reviewing the origins of HR and specifying its operational definition, this paper discusses the relevance of the HR framework for the study of measures related to EGM use and gambling in general. Examples are given to illustrate the arguments. The results show that HR has been over-inclusive in the field of gambling. A specific and operational definition and application of the HR framework is required for HR to be useful for the advancement of research in the gambling field.
KeywordsElectronic gambling machine EGM Prevention Harm reduction
Many thanks to Christian Jacques who challenged our views of harm reduction. His insight substantially improved the quality of our paper.
- Adams, J. (2007). Man who left son in car at casino is sentenced. Star Tribune. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://www.startribune.com.
- Blaszczynski, A. (2002). Harm minimization strategies in gambling. An overview of international initiatives and interventions. Retrieved October 27, 2003, from http://www.austgamingcouncil.org.au/research/research.htm.
- Blaszczynski, A., Sharpe, L., & Walker, M. (2001). The assessment of the impact of the reconfiguration on electronic gaming machines as harm minimisation strategies for problem gambling. A report for the gaming industry operators group (Final report). Sydney, Australia: The University of Sydney Gambling Research Unit.Google Scholar
- Breen, H., Buultjens, J., & Hing N. (2003). The responsible gambling code in Queensland: Implementation and venue assessment. Canberra, Australia: NAGS Conference Proceedings.Google Scholar
- Campbell, C. S. (2000). Lawlessness: Gaming policies in British Columbia, Canada. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Gambling Conference, Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
- Chevalier, S., Hamel, D., Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Allard, D., & Sévigny, S. (2004). Comportements de jeu et jeu pathologique selon le type de jeu au Québec en 2002 [Gambling behaviors and pathological gambling according to the type of game in Quebec, 2002]. Retrived October 25, 2006, from http://www.inspq.qc.ca/pdf/publications/267-ComportementsJeuQuebec2002.pdf.
- Corporate Research Associates. (2006). Video lottery program changes. Impact analysis. Retrieved June 21, 2007, from: https://www.nsgc.ca/pdf/VLTimpactanalysisreport.pdf.
- Doiron, J. P., & Nicki, R. M. (2001). Epidemiology of problem gambling in Prince Edward Island: A Canadian microcosm? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 413–417.Google Scholar
- Doiron, J. P. (2006). Gambling and problem gambling in Prince Edward Island. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from http://www.gov.pe.ca/photos/original/doh_GambReport.pdf.
- Drucker, E. (2005). Witch-hunt. Harm Reduction Journal, 2(3). Retrieved May 10, 2007, from http://www.harmreductionjournal.com/content/2/1/3.
- Gilliland, J. A., & Ross, N. A. (2005). Opportunities for video lottery terminal gambling in Montréal: An environmental analysis. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 96, 55–59.Google Scholar
- Hing, N. (2003). An assessment of member awareness, perceived adequacy and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies in Sydney Clubs. Lismore, Australia: Southern Cross University, Centre for Gambling Education and Research.Google Scholar
- Human Services Administration of Lincoln. (2004). Socioeconomic indicators of legalized gambling in Lincoln/Lancaster County, Nebraska. Lancaster County, NE: Joint Budget Committee.Google Scholar
- International Harm Reduction Association. What is harm reduction? Retrieved March 29, 2006 from http://www.ihra.net.
- Koch, E. (2005). Deadly lapse of memory. Kids in cars: An ongoing investigation. Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved May 22, 2007, from http://www.lasvegassun.com.
- Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2003). Interactive messages on video lottery terminals and the persistence to gamble. Gambling Research, 15, 45–50.Google Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., & Sévigny, S. (2006). The impact of video lottery game speed on gamblers. Journal of Gambling Issues, 17. Retrieved September 5, 2006, from http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue17/ladouceur.html.
- Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. (1995). First session of the thirty-sixth legislature (Volume 19, Committee of Supply—Department of Family Services). Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://www.gov.mb.ca/hansard/hansard/1st-36th/vol19/h019_4.html.
- Marshall, D., McMillen, J., Niemeyer, S., & Doran, B. (2004). Gaming machine accessibility and use in suburban Canberra: A detailed analysis of the Tuggeranong valley. Canberra: ANU Centre for Gambling.Google Scholar
- McMillen, J., & Pitt, S. (2005). Review of the ACT government’s harm minimisation measures. Canberra, Australia: Centre for Gambling Research. Retrieved November 5, 2006, from http://gambling.anu.edu.au/menu/PDFs/Policy%20Review-Final-withISBN.pdf.
- Ministry of Public Safety and Sollicitor General. (2003). Advertising and marketing standards for the B. C. gambling industry. Retrieved June 19, 2007, from http://www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/gaming/legislation-policies/docs/stds-advertising-marketing.pdf.
- Nowatzki, N. R., & Williams, R. J. (2002). Casino self-exclusion programmes: A review of the issues. International Gambling Studies, 2, 3–25.Google Scholar
- O’Boyle, T. (2006). The illegal use of video poker machines by public bars and private social clubs in Pennsylvania: It’s a rational choice. Journal of Economic Crime Management, 4(1). Retrieved May 16, 2007, from www.jecm.org.Google Scholar
- Omnifact Bristol Research. (2007). Nova Scotia player card research project (Stage III research report). Retrieved June 19, 2007, from http://www.nsgc.ca/pdf/Omnifacts%20Bristol%20Research%20Report.pdf.
- Paré, R., & Rousselle, C. (2007, June). L’intervention de crise au casino de Montréal [Crisis intervention at the Montreal casino]. Poster presented at the Colloque francophone « Les multiples facettes du jeu », Québec, Canada.Google Scholar
- Quinn, J. P. (1969). Gambling and gambling devices. In Patterson Smith reprint series in criminology, law enforcement, and social problems: Vol. 48. Montclair, NJ: Patterson Smith Publishing Corporation. (Originally published 1912).Google Scholar
- Problem Gambling Foundation of New Zealand. (2006). Family violence and gambling. Retrieved May 17, 2007, from http://www.cgs.co.nz/files/domestic_violence_and_gambling(2)sept06.pdf.
- Régie des alcools, des courses et des jeux. (2004). Alcohol: Public messages. Retrieved February 3, 2007, from http://www.racj.gouv.qc.ca.
- Riga, A., & Authier, P. (2006, October 25). Smokes ban hits loto-Quebec. The Montreal Gazette. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette.
- Ritter, A., & Cameron, J. (2005). Monograph No. 06: A systematic review of harm reduction (DPMP Monograph Series). Fitzroy, Australia: Turning Point Alcohol and Drug Centre.Google Scholar
- Roberts, A. R., & Yeager, K. R. (2005). Lethality assessment and crisis intervention with persons presenting with suicidal ideation. In A. R. Roberts (Ed.), Crisis intervention handbook: Assessment, treatment, and research (3rd ed., pp. 35–63). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Robson, G., & Marlatt, G. A. (2006). Harm reduction and alcohol policy [Editorial]. International Journal of Drug policy, 17, 255–257.Google Scholar
- Rodda, S., & Cowie, M. (2005). Evaluation of electronic gaming machine harm minimization measures in Victoria (final report). Melbourne, Australia: Office of Gaming and Racing, Victorian Government Department of Justice.Google Scholar
- Rose, N. (2003b). Underage gambling and the law. In H. J. Shaffer, M. N. Hall, J. Vander Bilt, & E. George (Eds.), Futures at stake: Youth, gambling and society (pp. 126–189). Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press.Google Scholar
- Sadinsky, S. (2005). Review of the problem-gambling and responsible-gaming strategy of the Government of Ontario. Retrieved June 1, 2007, from http://health.gov.on.ca/english/public/pub/ministry_reports/gambling_05/sadinsky.pdf.
- Schellinck, T., & Schrans, T. (2002). Atlantic Lottery Corporation video lottery responsible gaming feature research (Final report). Halifax, NS: Focal Research Consultants Ltd. Retrieved February 20, 2003, from http://www.gamingcorp.ns.ca/responsible/pbrgf.htm.
- Schrans, T., Grace, J., & Schellinck, T. (2004). 2003 NS VL Responsible Gaming Features Evaluation (Final report). Halifax, NS: Focal Research Consultants Ltd. Retrieved December 21, 2004, from http://www.gamingcorp.ns.ca/pdf/2003-NS-VL-RGF-Nov9–2004.pdf.
- Smith, G. J., & Wynne, H. J. (2002). Measuring gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from: https://dspace.ucalgary.ca/bitstream/1880/1626/1/gambling_alberta_cpgi.pdf.
- Smith, G. J., & Wynne, H. J. (2004). VLT gambling in Alberta: A preliminary analysis (Final report). Edmonton, AB: Alberta Gaming Research Institute and University of Alberta. Retrieved November 10, 2004, from http://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/abgaminginstitute//pdfs/VLT_Gambling_Alberta.pdf.
- Tammi, T. (2004). The harm-reduction school of thought: Three fractions. Contemporary Drug Problems, 31, 381–399.Google Scholar
- Thomson, G., & Wilson, N. (2006). One year of smokefree bars and restaurants in New Zealand: Impacts and responses. BMC Public Health, 6(64), Retrieved October 1, 2006, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471–2458–6-64.
- Volberg, R. A. (2003). Gambling and problem gambling in Arizona. Northampton, MA: Gemini Research. Retrieved December 10, 2006, from http://www.problemgambling.az.gov/prevalencestudy.pdf.
- Walker, M. B. (1992). The psychology of gambling. Sydney, Australia: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1994). Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization [Electronic version]. Retrieved January 13, 2006, from http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/terminology/who_lexicon/en.