Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 363–375 | Cite as

Self-perception of Gambling Problems among Adolescents Identified as At-risk or Problem Gamblers

  • Jessica M. Cronce
  • William R. Corbin
  • Marvin A. Steinberg
  • Marc N. Potenza
Original Paper

Abstract

The relative influence of perceived familial addictive behaviors and personal gambling behaviors on adolescents’ self-perceptions of gambling problems was examined. Students from five high schools in Connecticut (N = 3,886) were surveyed. Of those between the ages of 14 and 17 who scored two or more on the South Oaks Gambling Screen—Revised for Adolescents (n = 532; 72% male; 43% Caucasian), 14.3% reported having a current or past problem with gambling. Wagering larger amounts in a single day, gambling on a daily basis, and perceived presence of a family member with a gambling problem were associated with increased odds of self-perception of a gambling problem. Thus, adolescents who may be less likely to be identified for prevention efforts (due to lack of engagement in high stakes gambling or the real/perceived absence of a problematic gambler in the home) appear less likely to perceive a gambling problem. To advance prevention and treatment strategies, the apparent discrepancy between adolescents’ self-perceptions and objective reports of problem gambling behaviors warrants further investigation.

Keywords

Gambling Adolescents Self-perception At-risk Problem 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge constructive comments made by Drs. Kelly D. Brownell and Teresa A. Treat to earlier versions of this manuscript. This manuscript was written in partial fulfillment of requirements for the degree of Master of Science. Preliminary results from this study were previously presented at the International Symposium on Problem Gambling and Co-Occurring Disorders in Mystic, Connecticut in October, 2004. The current study was supported in part through NIDA (R01 DA019039), the Veteran’s Administration (MIRECC VISN1 and REAP), and Women’s Health Research at Yale.

References

  1. Chambers, R. A., & Potenza, M. N. (2003). Neurodevelopment, impulsivity and adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19, 53–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  3. Derevensky, J. L., Gupta, R., & Winters, K. (2003). Prevalence rates of youth gambling problems: Are the current rates inflated? Journal of Gambling Studies, 19, 405–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Desai, R. A., Maciejewski, P. K., Pantalon, M. V., & Potenza, M. N. (2005). Gender differences in adolescent gambling. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17, 249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Duhig, A. M., Maciejewski, P. K., Desai, R. A., Krishnan-Sarin, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2007). Characteristics of adolescent past-year gamblers and non-gamblers in relation to alcohol drinking. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 80–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Griffiths, M. (1995). Towards a risk factor model of fruit machine addiction: A brief note. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 343–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Grunbaum, J. A., Kann, L., Kinchen, S., Ross, J., Hawkins, J., Lowry, R., et al. (2004). Youth risk behavior surveillance—United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(SS-2), 1–96.Google Scholar
  8. Hardoon, K. K., & Derevensky, J. L. (2002). Child and adolescent gambling behavior: Current knowledge. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 7, 263–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hardoon, K. K., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (2003). Empirical measures vs. perceived gambling severity among youth: Why adolescent gamblers fail to seek treatment. Addictive Behaviors, 28, 933–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hardoon, K. K., Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (2004). Psychosocial variables associated with adolescent gambling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 170–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jacobs, D. F. (2000). Juvenile gambling in North America: An analysis of long term trends and future prospects. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 119–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jacobs, D. F. (2004). Youth gambling in North America: Long-term trends, future prospects. In J. L. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives (pp. 1–24). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Jacobs, D. F., Marston, A. R., Singer, R. D., Widaman, K., & Veizades, J. (1989). Children of problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 261–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2006). Monitoring the Future national survey results on drug use, 1975–2005: Volume I, Secondary school students (NIH Publication No. 06–5883). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  15. Kloos, B., Tebes, J. K., & Steinberg, M. (1997). Gambling by Connecticut Public High School Students. A report prepared for the Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling. New Haven, CT: The Consultation Center.Google Scholar
  16. Ladouceur, R., Blaszczynski, A., & Pelletier, A. (2004). Why adolescent problem gamblers do not seek treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 13, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ladouceur, R., Ferland, F., Poulin, C., Vitaro, F., & Wiebe, J. (2005). Concordance between the SOGS-RA and the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling among youth. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 271–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ladouceur, R., Bouchard, C., Rheaume, N., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., Leblond, J., & Walker, M. (2000). Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults? Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lesieur, H. R., & Klein, R. (1987). Pathological gambling among high school students. Addictive Behaviors, 12, 129–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lynch, W. J., Maciejewski, P. K., & Potenza, M. N. (2004). Psychiatric correlates of gambling in adolescents and young adults grouped by age at gambling onset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 1116–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nagelkerke, N. J. D. (1991). A note on a general definition of the coefficient of determination. Biometrika, 78, 691–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. National Research Council (1999). Pathological gambling: A critical review. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  23. Potenza, M. N., Xian, H., Shah, K. R., Scherrer, J. F., & Eisen, S. A. (2005). Shared genetic contributions to pathological gambling and major depression in men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1015–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Potenza, M. N. (2007). Impulse control disorders and co-occurring disorders: Dual diagnosis considerations. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 3(2).Google Scholar
  25. Rockloff, M. J., & Schofield, G. (2004). Factor analysis of barriers to treatment for problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 121–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 168–172.Google Scholar
  27. Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R., Scanlan, K. M., & Cummings, T. N. (1994). Pathological gambling among adolescents: Massachusetts Gambling Screen (MAGS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 10, 339–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Shah, K. R., Eisen, S. A., Xian, H., & Potenza, M. N. (2005). Genetic studies of pathological gambling: A review of methodology and analyses of data from the Vietnam Era Twin (VET) Registry. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 179–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Slutske, W. S., Eisen, S., True, W. R., Lyons, M. J., Goldberg, J., & Tsuang, M. (2000). Common genetic vulnerability for pathological gambling and alcohol dependence in men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 666–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Steinberg, M. A. (2003). Survey of Connecticut child and family treatment providers: Experience treating minors for a gambling problem and for the effects of family member’s gambling problem. Paper presented at the 17th National Conference on Problem Gambling, Louisville, KY.Google Scholar
  31. Stinchfield, R. (2000). Gambling and correlates of gambling among Minnesota public school students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 153–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  33. U.S. Census Bureau (2000). Table QT-P2—Single years of age under 30 years and sex: 2000. Retrieved October 12, 2005, from http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/QTTable?_bm=y&-geo_id=01000US&-qr_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_QTP2&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-_lang=en&-_sse=on.Google Scholar
  34. Vachon, J., Vitaro, F., Wanner, B., & Termblay, R. E. (2004). Adolescent gambling: Relationships with parent gambling and parenting practices. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 398–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., & Tidwell, M-C. (2004a). Gambling participation and pathology in the United States—A sociodemographic analysis using classification trees. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 983–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M-C. O., & Parker, J. C. (2004b). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilber M. K., & Potenza M. N. (2006). Adolescent gambling: Research and clinical implications. Psychiatry 2006, 3(10), 40–48.Google Scholar
  38. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 371–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R. D., & Kim, L. G. (1995). Monitoring adolescent gambling in Minnesota. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 165–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wynne, H., Smith, G., & Jacobs, D. (1996). Adolescent gambling and problem gambling in Alberta. A report prepared for the Alberta Alcohol and Drug Abuse Commission. Edmonton, Alberta: Wynne Resources, LTD.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jessica M. Cronce
    • 1
  • William R. Corbin
    • 1
  • Marvin A. Steinberg
    • 2
  • Marc N. Potenza
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Connecticut Council on Problem GamblingGuilfordUSA
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineYale UniversityNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations