Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 275–283 | Cite as

Prevalence Rates of Gambling Problems in Montreal, Canada: A Look at Old Adults and the Role of Passion

  • Frédérick Philippe
  • Robert J. Vallerand
Original Paper


The purpose of the present research was to determine the prevalence rate of gambling problems in senior citizens (55 years and older). A community-dwelling sample composed of 810 old adults living in the greater Montreal area in the Province of Quebec completed the Revised South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS-R). Results revealed that the 12-month prevalence rate was 1.2% for pathological gambling and 1.6% for at-risk gambling. Although, these rates are comparable to those reported elsewhere in Canada and in the US for senior citizens, the at-risk gambling rate was significantly higher than the current one for the general population of the overall Province of Quebec. Finally, a smaller portion of participants also completed two key items from the Gambling Passion Scale (GPS). Results revealed that obsessive passion was higher for pathological gamblers than for at-risk and non-problematic gamblers, while harmonious passion was lower for pathological gamblers than for at-risk and non-problematic gamblers.


Gambling Problems Prevalence rate Old adults Obsessive Passion Harmonious Passion 


  1. Beconia, E. (1996). Prevalence surveys of problem and pathological gambling in Europe: The cases of Germany, Holland and Spain. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Campbell, F., & Lester, D. (1999). The imact of gambling opportunities on compulsive gambling. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 126–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cox, B. J., Yu, N. O., & Afifi, T., Ladouceur, R. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 213–217.Google Scholar
  4. Erickson, L., Molina, C. A., Ladd, G. T., Pietrzak, R. H., & Petry, N. M. (2005). Problem and pathological gambling are associated with poorer mental and physical health in older adults. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 754–759.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hope, J., & Havir, L. (2002). You bet they’re having fun! Older Americans and casino gambling. Journal of Aging Studies, 16, 177–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Korn, D. A., & Shaffer, H. J. (1999). Gambling and the health of the public: Adopting a public health perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 15, 289–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ladouceur, R., Bouchard, C., Rheaume, N., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., & Leblond, J., Walker, M. (2000). Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults? Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Chevalier, S., Sévigny, S., & Hamel, D. (2005). Prevalence of pathological gambling in Quebec in 2002. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 451–456.Google Scholar
  9. Ladouceur, R., Jacques, C., Ferland, F., & Giroux, I. (1999). Prevalence of problem gambling: A replication study 7 years later. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 802–804.Google Scholar
  10. Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J., Rohde, P., Seeley, J. R., & Rohling, M. L. (2004). Individual, family, and peer correlates of adolescent gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 23–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lesieur, H., & Blume, S. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Lesieur, H., & Blume, S. (1993). Revising the South Oaks Gambling Screen in different settings. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9, 213–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Levens, S., Dyer, A-M., Zubritsky, C., Knott, K., & Oslin, D. W. (2005). Gambling among older, primary-care patients: An important public health concern. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 69–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mageau, G. A., Vallerand, R. J., Rousseau, F. L., Ratelle, C. F., & Provencher, P. J. (2005). Passion and gambling: Investigating the divergent affective and cognitive consequences of gambling. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 100–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McNeilly, D. P. & Burke, W. J. (2000). Late life gambling: The attitudes and behaviors of older adults. Journal of Gambling Studies, 16, 393–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. McNeilly, D. P., & Burke, W. J. (2001). Gambling as a social activity of older adults. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 52, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. National Opinion Research Center (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  18. Petry, N. M., & Kiluk, B. D. (2002). Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in tratment-seeking pathological gamblers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 190, 462–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ratelle, C. F., Vallerand, R. J., Mageau, G. A., Rousseau, F. L., & Provencher, P. (2004). When passion leads to problematic outcomes: A look at gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 105–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rousseau, F. L & Vallerand, R. J. (2003). Le rôle de la passion dans le bien-être subjectif des aînés [The role of passion in subjective well-being of the elderly]. Revue Québecoise de Psychologie, 24, 197–211.Google Scholar
  21. Rousseau, F. L., Vallerand, R. J., Ratelle, C. F., Mageau, G. A., & Provencher, P. J. (2002). Passion and gambling: On the validation of the gambling passion scale (GPS). Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 45–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1997). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A research synthesis. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1369–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Shaffer H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: Meta-analysis. MA: Harvard Medical School, Division on Addictions.Google Scholar
  24. Sommers, I. (1988). Pathological gambling: estimating prevalence and group characteristics. International Journal of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 477–490.Google Scholar
  25. Stinchfield, R. (2002). Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thompson, W., Gazel, R., & Rickman, D. (1996). The social costs of gambling in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Policy Research Institute Report.Google Scholar
  27. Vallerand R. J., & Houlfort N. (2003). Passion at work: Toward a new conceptualization. In: Skarlicki D., Gilliland S., Steiner D. (Eds.), Research in Social Issues in Management. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing Inc. 3, pp. 175–204.Google Scholar
  28. Vallerand, R. J., Blanchard, C. M., Mageau, G. A., Koestner, R., Ratelle, C., Léonard, M., Gagné, M., & Marsolais, J. (2003). Les passions de l’âme: On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 756–767.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Vallerand, R. J., Rousseau, F. L., Grouzet, F. M. E., Dumais, A., & Grenier, S. (in press). Passion in sport: A look at determinants and affective experiences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology.Google Scholar
  30. Vallerand, R. J., Salvy, S. J., Mageau, G. A., Denis, P., Grouzet, F. M. E., & Blanchard, C.B. (in press). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality.Google Scholar
  31. Vander Bilt, J., Dodge, H. H., Pandav, R., Shaffer, H. J., & Ganguli, M. (2004). Gambling participation and social support among older adults: A longitudinal community study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 373–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wallish L. S. (1993). Gambling in Texas: 1992 Texas survey of adult gambling behavior. Austin, TX: Texas Commission on Alcohol and Drug Abuse.Google Scholar
  33. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M., & Parker, J. (2001). Alcohol and gambling among U.S. adults: Prevalence, demographic patterns and comorbidity. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62, 706–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M., & Parker, J. (2002). Gambling participation in the U.S. Results from a national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 313–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorke, W. F., Tidwell, M. O., & Parker, J. C. (2004). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 323–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wiebe, J. M. D. & Cox, B. J. (2005). Problem and probable pathological gambling among older adults assessed by the SOGS-R. Journal of Gambling Studies, 22, 205–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Recherche sur le Comportement Social, Département de PsychologieUniversité du Québec à MontréalMontreal (Quebec)Canada

Personalised recommendations