Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 21, Issue 2, pp 117–131 | Cite as

Structural Characteristics of Video Lotteries: Effects of a Stopping Device on Illusion of Control and Gambling Persistence

Article

Abstract

Two studies investigated the effects of a video lottery terminal stopping device on gamblers’ thoughts and behavior. This structural characteristic allows players to voluntarily stop the spinning of the reels. The first study investigated the effect of this device on the development of illusions of control. It was predicted that players using the stopping device would believe that (1) symbols displayed could differ depending on when the game is stopped, (2) there is a possibility of controlling the outcome of the game, (3) skills may be a factor influencing the results, and finally (4) a stopping device would improve the probability of personal success (i.e., developing the illusion of control). The second study aimed to further evaluate the effects of the stopping device on gambling behavior. It was hypothesised that using the stopping device would encourage players to increase the number of games played in a session. Results confirmed all predictions and showed that offering a stopping device on video lottery terminals modifies gamblers’ cognition and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed in the context of responsible gambling policies.

Keywords

video lottery structural characteristics illusion of control gambling persistence 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blaszczynski, A. 2000Overcoming Compulsive GamblingRobinsonLondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Shaffer, H. 2004A Science-Based Framework for Responsible Gambling: The Reno ModelJournal of Gambling Studies20301317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chau, A. W., Phillips, J. G. 1995Effects of perceived control upon wagering and attributions in computer blackjackJournal of General Psychology122253269Google Scholar
  4. Delfabbro, P. H., Winefield, A. H. 1999Poker-machine gambling: An analysis of within session characteristicsBritish Journal of Psychology90425439Google Scholar
  5. Delfabbro, P. H., Winefield, A. H. 2000Predictors of irrational thinking in regular slot machine gamblersThe Journal of Psychology134117128PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Dickerson, M., Baron, E. 2000Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gamblingAddiction9511451159PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Diskin, K. M., Hodgins, D. C. 1999Narrowing of attention and dissociation in pathological video lottery gamblersJournal of Gambling Studies151728Google Scholar
  8. Dixon, M. R., Hayes, L. J., Ebbs, R. E. 1998Engaging in “illusory control” during repeated risk-takingPsychological Reports83959962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Griffiths, M. 1990The gaming industry and the psychology of the fruit machineThe Occupational Psychologist112832Google Scholar
  10. Griffiths, M. 1993Fruit machine gambling: The importance of structural characteristicsJournal of Gambling Studies9133152Google Scholar
  11. Griffiths, M. 1999Gambling technology: Prospects for problem gamblingJournal of Gambling Studies15265283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Koehler, J. J., Gibbs, B. J., Hogarth, R. M. 1994Shattering the illusion of control: Multi-shot versus single-shot gamblesJournal of Behavioral Decision Making7183191Google Scholar
  13. Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Doucet, C. 2002Understanding and treating pathological gamblersWileyLondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Ladouceur, R., Walker, M. 1996

    A cognitive perspective on gambling

    Salkovskis, P. M. eds. Trends in cognitive therapyWileyOxford89120
    Google Scholar
  15. Ladouceur, R., Walker, M. 1998

    The Cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling

    Bellack, A. S.Hersen, M. eds. Comprehensive clinical psychologyPergamonNew York588601
    Google Scholar
  16. Langer, E. J. 1975The illusion of controlJournal of Personality and Social Psychology32311328Google Scholar
  17. Lesieur, H. R., Blume, S. B. 1987The South Oaks Gambling Screen (The SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblersAmerican Journal of Psychiatry14411841188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Loba, P., Stewart, S. H., Klein, R. M., Blackburn, J. R. 2001Manipulations of the features of satndard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: Effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblersJournal of Gambling Studies17297320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Milton, S. 2001Stop Gambling : A Self-Help Manual for Giving up GamblingPan MacmillanAustraliaGoogle Scholar
  20. Nova Scotia Department of Health1998Nova Scotia video lottery players survey 1997/98NovaScotia Department of HealthNova ScotiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Presson, P. K., Denassi, V. A. 1996Illusion of control: A meta-analytic reviewJournal of Social Behavior and Personality11493510Google Scholar
  22. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., Vander Bilt, J. 1997Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling in the United States and Canada: A meta-analysisHarvard CollegeBoston, MAGoogle Scholar
  23. Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwook, K., Dragonetti, R., Tsanos, A. 1997Cognitive distortions in heavy gamblingJournal of Gambling Studies13253266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Volberg, R. A., Steadman, H. J. 1988Refining prevalence estimates of pathological gamblingAmerican Journal of Psychiatry145502505PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Walker, M. 1992The psychology of gamblingPergamonNew YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity LavalQuebec (Qc)Canada

Personalised recommendations